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The legitimacy of cursing and insulting in Sunnis` viewpoint
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The legitimacy of cursing and insulting in Sunnis` viewpoint

Introduction and Meaning of Curse:

Introduction:

Sunni Scholar’s Words about Shiites and Insulting the Companions:


Ibne Timiya:

Ihsan Ilahi Zahir:

Dr. Nasir Al Qafari:

Dr. Mustafa Hilmi:

Dr. Muhammad Amhazun:

Dr. Qalib Awaji:

Bin Jabarin’s Fatwa about blasphemy of Shiites:

Sheikh Adil Kalbani:

Sunnis’ View about the One Who Insults the Companions:

Insulting the companions is a clearly forbidden act and is a great sin

Insulting the companions excludes one from the religion

Do not touch the body of the one who insults the companions

Quoting a tradition from one who insults the companions is forbidden

The one who insults the companions does not have the right to use Fei (a special kind of trophy of war)

The one who thinks that the companions should be insulted must be burned

The one who insults the companions is sentenced to be executed or Ta’zir (that is a corporal punishment)

The insulter of the companions must be killed

The one who insults the two Sheikhs (Abubakr and Omar) and Hassanain (Imam Hassan and Imam Hussein) should be killed

The one who insults the two Sheikhs (Abubakr and Omar) should be killed and his repentance should not be accepted

The one who insults the two Sheikhs (Abubakr and Omar) or anyone who has been promised the Paradise should be killed

The one who insults Abubakr and Omar should be whipped and the one who insults Mothers of Believers should be killed

Using insulting the Khalifas and companions as an excuse for a Fatwa to kill Shiites and occupying their assets

Anyone who kills a heretic (which refers to Shiites) who insulted Abubakr and Omar will go to the Paradise    

Continuation of this attack until the present time

Double Standard! Different Reactions toward Insulting the Khalifas and Insulting and Killing Ali Ibne Abi Talib (AS)

The sin of insulting Ali (AS) is lesser than insulting Abubakr, Omar, and Othman

The one who insults Abubakr, Omar, and Othman should be killed and his corpse should be burned, but the one who insults Ali (AS) is only sentenced to Ta’zir

Sunnis’ idea about murderer of Othman:

Ibne Hizm’s idea

Ibne Timiya’s idea

Ibne Kathir’s idea

Zahabi’s idea

Abdul Aziz Dihlawi’s idea

Muhammad Ibne Abdul Wahhab’s idea

Sunni Scholars’ Idea about Enemies and Murderer of Imam Ali (AS)

Murderer of Ali (AS) did according to his own interpretation and will be rewarded by God

Murderer of Ali (AS) was a man of salat and fastening and killed him for the sake of God

Murderer of Ali (AS) was the most praising man

The Holy Prophet’s word about killer of Imam Ali (AS)

Analyzing View of Shiites and Sunnis about the Companions

Shiites’ view about companions:

The first group of companions:

1- Those who were killed during lifetime of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)

2- Those who died during lifetime of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and were believers and faithful

3- Those who remained loyal to the belief of Imamat of Imam Ali (AS)

4- Those who returned to Imam Ali (AS) after a while

The companions who defended Imam Ali (AS) in the war of Jamal

The companions who defended Imam Ali (AS) in the war of Seffein

The second group of companions:

The third group of companions:

Shiite scholars’ words about companions

A summary of Shiite’s view

Sunnis’ View about the Companions

All companions were just, friends of God, and the best of creatures after the Prophets

Definition of companion in the view of Sunnis

Number of companion in the view of Sunnis

Famous companions in the view of Sunnis

The Meaning of Curse:

Denotative meaning of curse: sending away from good things

Denotative meaning of insult and its difference with curse:

Curse and Insult in Quran

Insulting in Quran

Curser in the Holy Quran

God

Angels

All people

The Five People (members of Ahle Bait)

An explanation about this verse

David and Jesus

A herald on the Resurrection Day

A cursing man (in Liaan, which is a religious matter between wife and husband)

Pagan people will curse each other on the Day of Resurrection

The Cursers

The Unknown

Those Who Are Cursed in the Holy Quran

The First Group: The Titles Which Are Especially Used for Pagans and Non-Muslims

1- Pagans and the Blasphemous

2- Those Christians who did Mubahila (cursing) with the Holy Prophet (PBUH)

3- People of Sibt

4- Those of earlier religions who did not believe in what their prophets said and turned to paganism

5- Those who believed in the tyrant and brutal and believed that pagans were better than Muslims

6- Satan

7- Those with whom God got angry and were metamorphosed

8- The Jew who believed that God’s hands were tied!

9- The Tribe of Aad

10- Pharaoh, his army, and his commanders and agents such as Haman

11- The followers of Pharaoh

12- The hellish people and tribes

13- Bani Israel who broke their divine promise

The Second Group:

1- Hypocrites

2- Those who are diseased hearted and spread rumors in Medina

3- Those who were suspicious to God in the Peace Treaty of Hudaibiya

The Third Group: Those Muslims which are not Hypocrite

1- Those who annoy God and His Messenger

Translation of Amro Ibne Shas

2- A man which tells a lie in Liaan (which is explained earlier)

3- A cursed tribe

What do we mean by a Cursed Tribe?

4- Those who hide religious facts after they were sent down.

5- Oppressors

Oppressors in Quran

A- Believers who chose pagans as their lord

B- Believers who call others names and mock others

C- The one who passes God’s limitations and violates them

D- The one who judges according to anything but divine rules

Oppressors in traditions: Companions introduce companions as oppressor!

6- Those who break their promise and those who corrupt the Earth and those who do not meet their relatives, as God had ordered

7- The one who accuses chaste women of unchastity

8- The one who kills a Muslim on purpose

9- Some leaders of societies which will be punished in the Hell

10- Liars

Cursing in Tradition of the Holy Prophet (PBUH):

An explanation about insulting in the Holy Prophet’s word

Different Types of Curse in the Words of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)

1- Curse of Some People with Specific Characteristics in the Prophet’s Word According to True Sunni Traditions

1- 4- A woman who attaches hair of others, the one who gets the hair, a woman who tattoos and the one who gets tattooed

5 -8- A woman who shaves others, a woman who gets shaved, a woman who put a gap between her teeth, anyone who changes creation of Allah

9- 12- Receiver Riba (interest), one who pays, its witness, and its dealer

13- The one who bought fat tail of sheep from the Jew,

14- 23- wine, the one who makes the juice of grape, the one who boils that, the one who drinks it, the one who carries that, the one to whom wine is being taken, its seller, its buyer, the tapster, and the one in whose bowl wine is poured

24- The Jews who built a shrine over their prophets’ tombs

25- The Women who go to the grave yards

26- A Thief

27- 28- The men who behave like women and the women who behaved like men

29- 32- Anyone who causes disaster in Medina and anyone who harbors that person, someone who takes a master without permission of his true master, and someone who violates the right of being protected of a Muslim

33- 34- Briber and the one who receives bribe

35- 40- The one who adds something to divine books, the one who rejects divine fate, the one who governs people by force so that he respects someone who is disrespected by God or disrespects someone who is respected by God, the one who allows something which is forbidden by God (and the one who allows bloodshed in Masjid Al Haraam), and someone who acts my family (Ahle Bait) in a way which is forbidden by God (and bothers them), and someone who abandons my tradition

41- 42- someone who collects charities and the one who returns to the tradition of the ignorant Arabs after Hijrat of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)

43- 44- the men who dressed like women and the women who dressed like men

45- 46- The men who looked feminine and the women who looked masculine

47- The women who are covered while they are naked

48- 50- Someone who collects charities (of other people), Muhallil, Muhallil Lah

51- The one who mates his wife anally

52- 54- A woman who harms her face, the one who rips her clothes, and the one who cries loudly in a catastrophe

55- 60- The person who changed the borders on the land, those who shed blood for anyone except God, those who curse their parents, the person who takes a master other than his real master, the one who misleads a blind, the one who mates with an animal, the one who imitates the tribe of Lut

61- Someone who harbors a criminal (or heretic)

62- The one who violates such an agreement and the person who harbors him

63- Illustrators

64- The woman who ignores mating with her husband

65- Anyone who threatens others (with a sword or anything else)

66- The world is cursed along with anything in it except for remembrance of Allah, a scientist, and people who seek knowledge

67- 68- a person who cauterized an animal in its face or bits its face

69- 70- the one who introduces himself son of someone except his father, and the man who offers his service to someone but his real master

71- 72- the person who spends the money which is achieved from selling wine … and the person for whom wine is bought

73- 75- The ruler from Quraish who is not just, is stingy, and does not keep his word

76- The person who targets and shoots at a living animal

Curse of Some People with Specific Characteristics in the Prophet’s Word Without a reference to the Sahihs

Curse and insult of companions

Analyzing traditions about reason of prohibition of insulting the companions

Who is the Holy Prophet’s addressee?

Who are the companions who should not be insulted?

Sunnis’ answer to this question

Critique of Sunnis’ view on this

Answering the first idea

Answering the second idea

Answering the third idea

Analyzing traditions about curse of those who insult companions

Tradition of Khalal in Al Sunnat

Tradition of Ahmad in Fazail Al Sahaba

Abu Shiba Jowhari is weak

Tradition of Ibne Abi Shiba

Tradition of Heithami

Analysis of Heithami’s tradition

The reference of the first tradition

A- Ata Ibne Abi Ribah

B- Ata Al Khurasani

C- Ata Ibne Al Saib

Reference of the second tradition

Admitting to unacceptability of traditions of those who insult the companions

2- Cursing Special Tribes by the Holy Prophet (PBUH)

Tribes of Lihyan, Ril, Zakwan, Assiya (and Azl, Qarra, Zaqab)

Who were these tribes? Why did the Holy Prophet (PBUH) curse them?

Was this curse accepted?

Tribe of Muqaira Ibne Shuba

3- Direct Curse of Some People by the Holy Prophet (PBUH)

1- Hakam Ibne Aas

2- Descendants of Hakam (including Marwan Ibne Hakam, Othman’s son-in-law)

Quotation of the curse by Aisha

Reference of the tradition

Muhammad Ibne Ziyad Al Qarshi Al Jumhi

Shuba Ibne Al Hajjaj

Umayya Ibne Khalid

Ali Ibne Al Hussein Ibne Matar Al Dirhami

Quotation of the curse by Imam Hassan (AS)

Quotation of the curse by Abdullah Ibne Zubair

3- Abu Sufyan

4- Yazid Ibne Abu Sufyan

5- Muawiya Ibne Abu Sufyan

Who are these three people?

A specific curse of Muawiya

Compliance of Prophet’s curse toward Muawiya

Zahabi’s answer about vulgar interpretation of Hadith

Order (or not prohibition) of one of the prophet’s wife to insult another wife!

The Holy Prophet’s not prohibition of cursing Abubakr

References of this hadith and those alike

6- Amro Ibne Aas

7 and 8- Two companions who bothered the Holy Prophet (PBUH)

9- One of companions who mated his servant before her being non-pregnant is proved

Explanation about the tradition

10- Pagans of Quraish and their gods

The Companions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) Who Cursed Some Other Companions

1- Companions Who Were Cursed by Imam Ali (AS)

1-7- Muawiya, Amro Ibne Aas, Aba Al Aour, Habib Ibne Muslima, Abdul Rahman Ibne Khalid, Zahhak Ibne Qais, Walid

8- Abdullah Ibne Zubair

9- Abu Musa Ashari

10- 12- Muqaira Ibne Shuba, Busr Ibne Artat, Marwan Ibne Hakam

2- Companions Who Were Cursed by Imam Hassan (AS)

Muawiya Ibne Abu Sufyan

Shiite and Sunni Great People’s Amen to This Curse

You, too, say Amen

Marwan Ibne Hakam

3- Abubakr Cursed One of His Servants

An explanation about this tradition

4- Those Companions Who Were Cursed by Omar

May God kill Sad Ibne Ibada!

May God kill Samara!

Translation of Samara

5- Companions Who Were Cursed by Aisha

Othman Ibne Afwan

May God kill Othman!

Cursing Muawiya and Amro Ibne Aas

Its evidences

Other evidences

A special curse upon Amro Ibne Aas

Cursing Muhammad Ibne Abibakr for killing Othman

6- Cursing Abdullah Ibne Hamar, the Companion, for Drinking Wine by another Companion

Companions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) Insulting Other Companions

1- Companions Who Were Insulted by Imam Ali (AS)

Othman Ibne Afwan

Imam Ali (AS) and Othman insulting each other

Imam Ali (AS): Othman is Na’thal (a Jew man) and Said Ibne Al Aas is naughty

Said Ibne Al Aas

Abbas, the uncle of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)!

Muhammad Ibne Talha Ibne Ubeid Allah

2- Companions Who Were Insulted by Imam Hussein (AS)

Marwan Ibne Hakam, his father, and his tribe

3- Companions Who Were Cursed by Abubakr

Imam Ali (AS)

Abu Hilal Askari’s translation

Quotation of the tradition by Ibne Abi Al Hadid

One of companions who insulted Abubakr

References for this tradition and other tradition with similar content

4- Companions Who Were Insulted by Omar

Khalid Ibne Walid is enemy of God!

Abu Harira; enemy of God and Quran

To Abu Harira: Your mother had shitted you for treating animals!

Sad Ibne Ibada is a hypocrite!

Hatib Ibne Abi Baltaa (companion in war of Badr) is a hypocrite!

Sunnis’ justifications for this tradition

Abu Hazifa (companion in war of Badr) is a hypocrite!

Zul Khawisara (a companion) is a hypocrite!

Sunni scholars confess that Zul Khawisara was a companion

Abdullah Ibne Abi is a hypocrite and evil!

5- Companions Who Were Insulted by Othman

Imam Ali (AS)

Aisha and Hafse, wives of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)

6- Companions Who Were Insulted by Aisha

Aisha’s silence toward Imam Ali’s being insulted

Her insult toward Zeinab Bint Jahsh (wife of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)) and Ahle Bait

Aisha insulting Othman Ibne Afwan

The first one who called Othman as Na’thal was Aisha.

Othman was Na’thal before being killed and after his death, he was oppressed!

Aisha’s silence toward insults to Othman

Aisha’s insult to Safiya (wife of the Holy Prophet (PBUH))

7- Companions Who Were Insulted by Ammar Yasir

Othman

Khalid Ibne Walid

8- Companions Who Were Insulted by Khalid Ibne Walid

Ammar Yasir

Abdul Rahman Ibne Awf

9- Amro Ibne Aas and Abu Musa Ashari Insulting Each Other

10- Sad Ibne Maaza and Sad Ibne Ibada Insulting Each Other

11- Abdullah Ibne Abi Hadrad (Aslami) and Another Companion (from Among Ansar) Insulting Each Other

12- One of Companions Insulting Waraqa Ibne Nufel and Brother of Waraqa Insulted Him

13- Walid Ibne Aqaba Insulted Bani Abdul Mutallib (Which Also Includes the Holy Prophet (PBUH))

14- Hazifa Ibne Yaman Called Abu Musa Ashari Hypocrite!

15- Ubeidullah Ibne Omar Insulted Miqdad

Translation of Ubeidullah Ibne Omar

16- Abuzar Insulted One of Companions

An explanation about this tradition

17- Abu Harira Insulted Marwan

18- Umme Musattah Insulted Her Son Musattah (A Companion in the War of Badr)

Translation of Umme Musattah

19- Ibne Abbas Insulted Amro Ibne Aas

20- Some Companions Insulted Malik Ibne Al Dakhshan (A Companion in the War of Badr)

Translation of Malik Ibne Al Dakhshan

21- The Companions Insulting Each Other in Presence of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)

A- Two companions from Habashe and Nabt

B- Two companions in front of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)

C- A companion from Abdullah Ibne Abi’s tribe and another from among Ansar

D- Two companions from Ows and Khazraj

E- One of companions insulting Abubakr

The evidence of this tradition and other traditions with similar content

Companions Who Insulted or Cursed Sunni Khalifas

1- Companions Who Insulted Abubakr

A- Safiya, wife of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)

B- One of companions (anonymous)

Evidences of this tradition and other ones with similar content

2- Companions Who Insulted Othman

Imam Ali (AS)

Aisha

The first one who called Othman as Na’thal was Aisha.

Othman was Na’thal before being killed and after his death, he was oppressed!

Aisha’s not preventing others from insulting Othman

Muhammad Ibne Abibakr

He insults Othman, Muawiya Ibne Khudaij, Muawiya Ibne Abi Sufyan, Amro Ibne Al Aas

When Othman dies, he called him Na’thal (an old Jew)

Ammar Ibne Yasir

Jabala Ibne Amro Al Ansari

Translation of Jabala Ibne Amro

Jahjah Al Qaffari

Translation of Jahjah

3- Companions Who Insulted or Cursed Muawiya

Imam Ali (AS)

Imam Hassan (AS)

Ahnaf Ibne Qais

Aisha

Evidences of this story

Other evidences

Samra Ibne Jundab

Aqil Ibne Abi Talib

Qanima Bint Qanim

Companions Who Insulted Wives of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)

1- Companions Who Insulted Aisha

Some companions in the story of Afak (according to Sunnis’ view)

Othman Ibne Afwan insulting Aisha

Hakim Ibne Jabala insulting Aisha

Translation of Hakim Ibne Jabala

Zeinab Bint Jahsh, the Prophet’s wife, insulted Aisha

Safiya, the prophet’s wife, insulted Aisha

2- Aisha Insults Zeinab Bint Jahsh

3- Aisha Insults Safiya, the Prophet’s Wife

4- Othman Insults Hafse

Companions Who Insulted Imam Ali (AS) and Other Members of Ahle Bait

Insulting Imam Ali (AS) Is Insulting the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and Insulting the Holy Prophet (PBUH) Is Insulting God.

Hakim Neishabouri says that this hadith is true

Heithami says that this hadith is true

Ibne Wazir says that this hadith is true

Minawi accepts the text of this hadith

1- Abubakr

Translation of Abu Hilal Askari

Who is Abubakr’s addressee? Ibne Abi Al Hadid replies

2- Othman Ibne Afwan

3- Muawiya Ibne Abi Sufyan

Muawiya’s order to insult Imam Ali (AS) in Sahih Muslim

Sunni scholars’ confession to removal of the part “ordered to” in this tradition

1- Ibne Timiya Hurrani

2- Sheikh Abdullah Bin Qaniman

3- Muqbil Ibne Hadi Al Wadei

4- Dr. Sheikh Musa Shahin Lashin

To gaze Muawiya’s attention, they would insult the Holy Prophet (PBUH), leave alone Ali Ibne Abi Talib (AS)

Muawiya insults Imam Ali (AS) – with true traditions

Muawiya’s order to Aqil Ibne Abi Talib: Go over the pulpit and insult Ali Ibne Abi Talib (AS)!

Muawiya insults Imam Ali (AS), Imam Hassan (AS), Imam Hussein (AS), and Ibne Abbas

Muawiya: I cannot stop insulting Ali (AS) in public!

One article of the Peace Treaty was that Muawiya should not curse Imam Ali (AS), but he did not accept.

A group of people used to gather around Muawiya to insult Imam Ali (AS) and Imam Hassan (AS)

Insulting Imam Ali (AS) in meetings of Muawiya

Muawiya’s insult to Bani Hashim

4- Aisha

Her indifference toward insulting Imam Ali (AS)

Aisha’s insult to family of Imam Ali (AS)

5- Muqaira Ibne Shuba

Lecturers and speakers used to curse Imam Ali (AS) according to his order

His insults toward Imam Ali (AS) – with true reference

Muqaira’s indifference toward insulting Imam Ali (AS) – with true reference

6- Amro Ibne Al Aas

His insults to Imam Ali (AS) – with true reference

His insults to Bani Hashim

7- Marwan

His insults to Imam Ali (AS)

His insults to Imam Ali (AS), Fateme Zahra (AS), and Imam Hassan (AS)

He cursed Ahle Bait

8- Basr Ibne Artat

9- Walid Ibne Aqaba

10- Atabat Ibne Abi Sufyan

11- Abbas; Uncle of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)!

12- Abdullah Ibne AlZubair Ibne Awam

13- Cursing Imam Ali (AS) in Presence of One of Wives of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)

14- 18- Aba Al Aur, Zahhak Ibne Qais, Habib Ibne Muslima, Abu Musa Ashari

Answering Questions about Cursing and Concluding from the Holy Quran and Traditions

1- Are We Allowed to Curse Someone Who Is Cursed by the Holy Prophet (PBUH)?

1- People’s cursing is a request from God about His curse.

2- In Quran and Tradition of the Holy Prophet (PBUH), people were asked to curse a group of sinners

3- Explicit order to curse some sinners

4- Being cursed by the Holy Prophet (PBUH) means others can curse that person

5- Cursing by the Holy Prophet (PBUH) is a model for other people  

2- If We Do Not Curse, We Will Not Be Taken to the Hell, but If We Curse, Maybe We Will Be Taken to the Hell

1- We are ordered by God to follow all traditions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and cursing is one of them.

2- According to the Holy Prophet (PBUH), the one who is accursed (and deserves to be cursed) must be cursed.

3- Are We Allowed Only to Curse Indirectly and Those Who Have Bad Attributes And It Is Forbidden In Other Ways?

If you curse someone who does not deserve it, it will return to yourself.

Ibne Hajar’s word

1- The Holy Prophet (PBUH) cursed some people by name and directly!

Sunnis’ answer: the Holy Prophet (PBUH) had foreknowledge! He could realize who will die unfaithful!

Answering Ibne Hajar’s justification

A- Not all Sunnis consider the Holy Prophet (PBUH) to have foreknowledge

B- Did those companions who were cursed directly by the Holy Prophet (PBUH) die as pagan?

2- The companions cursed special people

3- If (false) curse returns to the one who did it, why then Sunnis prevent Shiites from cursing?

4- Is the tradition which says “If the Holy Prophet (PBUH) cursed someone who did not deserve it, that curse will turn into mercy for that person” true?

Someone whose words are divine and has the best of behavior, does not curse someone unjustly!

The verse “And thou (standest) on an exalted standard of character”

The Verses “Nor does he say (aught) of (his own) Desire. It is no less than inspiration sent down to him”

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) says “Whatever I say, at the time of happiness or anger, is true”.

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) says “I say nothing but it is put to my mouth from the unseen”.

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) says “I say nothing but the truth”.

Conclusion

Sunnis’ justification about these traditions

The first critique

 Nuwi’s answer to the first critique

A- The cursed people apparently deserved to be cursed, but they are not worthy of being cursed and God knows this.

B- These are some frequent sayings among Arabs and they do not really refer to cursing someone.

The second critique

Nuwi’s answer to the second critique

Summary of what Sunni scholars say in response to this tradition according to Nuwi

The first critique: Did the Holy Prophet (PBUH) insult someone who did not deserve to be insulted?

Answer 1: The Holy Prophet (PBUH) was responsible for what was visible and apparently, that person deserved to be cursed.

The second answer: The Holy Prophet (PBUH), according to the tradition of Arabs, used to say offensive words and insult others unaware.

The second critique: Does this matter that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) says “I get angry like everyone” show that he insulted someone because of his anger and out of passion?

Answer: The Holy Prophet’s anger was only in case of bringing about divine rules.

Analysis of the first part of Nuwi’s word

A- Muslims can curse other people only out of their own interpretation.

B- Cursing must be considered as a fixed tradition of the Holy Prophet (PBUH).

Analysis of the second part of Nuwi’s word

A- If it was something one-time and non permanent, it should have not been repeated.

B- If these words did not intend cursing, why did then it come true?

The prophet’s curse came true about tribes of Lahyan, Ra’l, Zakwan, Asiyya

The prophet’s curse came true about Muawiya

C- The companions understood the real meaning of cursing by the Holy Prophet’s cursing

D- If these words did not intend to curse, why then were they due to anger for sake of God?

Analysis of the third part of Nuwi’s word

Concluding from answers: Whether cursing is a tradition of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) or the traditions are wrong!

5- Will Angels Defend Someone Who Is Cursed?

According to this tradition, Sunnis should remain silent in front of cursing Khalifas

There is contradiction in the text of this tradition

Link to PDF file: http://www.valiasr-aj.com/lib/layn/layn.pdf

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In the Name of God

Introduction:

One of reasons that Sunnis and especially Wahhabis consider Shiites as pagan is that they curse companions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH). They claim that Shiites, Shiites curse all companions and if someone curses one of companions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH), he has disrespected the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and the one who disrespects the Holy Prophet (PBUH), he is pagan and deserves to be killed.

It is surprising that Sunni faqihs and leaders has repeatedly issued fatwas that someone who insults Abubakr or Omar should be killed, but about those who curse Imam Ali Ibne Abi Talib (AS), not only they have no fatwa like this, but also many of those who disrespected Imam Ali (AS) and insulted him and fought him are highly respected by Sunnis!

Sunni Scholars’ Words about Shiites and Insulting Companions

At first, we quote some words by Sunni and Wahhabi scholars in this regard:

Ibne Timiya:   

He says:

There is no doubt that insulting any of companions is not allowed; neither Ali, nor Othman or anyone else. And the sin of someone who insults Abubakr or Omar or greater than that of someone who insults Ali!

His justification, if he has any, is more unacceptable than that of the one who insults Ali (AS). And those who have a justification for those insulting to him might not be blamed.

The army of Muawiya could not be blamed. And if someone is worthy of being blamed, Shiites must be blamed for insulting three Khalifas not those who only insulted Ali! Anyway, those who insult three Khalifas are farther away from the truth!

- Menhaj al-Sunnah al-Nobovyah , vol. 4 , p. 46 , by Ahmad ibn Abdul Halim ibn Taymiyyah al-Harani Abu al-Abbas (died : 728 A.H) , Dar al-Nashr : institute of Qurtabah – 1406 A.H. , al-Tabaha ; 1 , research by Dr. Muhammad Reshad Salem .

Ihsan Ilahi Zahir:

He, in his book Shiite and Ahle Bait, writes:

Ali Ibne Abi Talib (AS) was a person who did not like people of Sham and his enemies, Muawiya Ibne Abi Sufyan, be insulted and he even stopped others from doing so. Then, how can we believe that he accepted people of Medina, the city of the prophet, his companions, his friends, and his relatives (his son-in-law and father-in-law) be insulted?

- Al-Shiite va Ahl AL-Bayt , p. 211 .

Dr. Nasir Al Qafari:

Dr. Nasir Qafari, professor of Muhammad Bin Saud, writes:

In Shiite books, it is admitted that Ibne Saba was the first person who disliked Abubakr, Omar, and Othman and criticized them. He claimed that Ali had ordered to do so and Ali decided to kill him for criticizing the companions.

- Usool Mazhab al-Shiite, vol. 2, p. 768, third edition: 932 A.H. , Abdullah al-Junied – Havar Bein al-Sunni va al-Shiite : 50 – 52 , anal – Maghalat va al-Fargh : 20 .

Dr. Mustafa Hilmi:

Dr. Mustafa Hilmi, professor of philosophy in University of Umm Al Qura, says:

(People of) Iran insist on insulting the companions and Abubakr, Omar, and Othman are ahead of others. Also Iranians insist on rejection of legitimacy of Khilafat of them.

- Nezam al-khalafa , p. 8 .

Dr. Muhammad Amhazun:

Dr. Muhammad Amhazun, professor of History of Islam in Mowla Ismail University in Miknas, Morocco, writes:

One of ideological heresies of Shiites is enmity and insulting toward companions and even excommunicating them. That has become a basic element in their religion! In their opinion, that is because companions opposed Holy Prophet’s word about succession and Imamat of Ali (AS) and, therefore, they excommunicated the companions for not paying homage to Ali and they reject all of them except for a small minority.

- Tahghigh Mavaghif al-Sahabah fi al-Fetnah , vol. 2 , p. 283 , 338 , Resala AL-Doctor by Dr. Muhammad Omahzon , Jameha Muhammad al-Awwal , - al-Maqreb , kolyah al-Adab va al-Uloom al-Ensani , Supervision by Dr. Farouq Hamada .

Also, in another occasion, he says:

This insult is what is called in our age as scientific criticism of the companions. And this is in fact the same insult that followers of Abdullah Ibne Saba, Rafezis (Shiites), Khawarij, and Heretics had toward companions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and disrespected them in this manner. And this is the same insult that liar narrators, especially Shiites, had made as traditions!

- ibid source vol. 1 p. 142.   

He also says:

When insulting the companions was spread among Shiites, a group of people started to coin some traditions about virtues of some or all companions!

- ibid source vol. 1 p. 54.

Dr. Qalib Awaji:

Dr. Qalib Bin Ali Awaji, professor of Islamic University of Medina, says:

Shiite books are full of insult and disrespect of companions and they only exclude five or seventeen people from them (and do not insult them)!

- Firagh Moasarah , vol. 1 , p. 247 .

Elsewhere, he writes:

One who claims to be Muslim, but he insults the companions and considers them as pagan and apostates them is of no use for Islam and Muslims.

- ibid source vol. 1 p. 171.

Fatwa of Ibne Jabarin about Blasphemy of Shiites:

He, who is considered as one of the greatest Wahhabi scholars and is a Mufti of Saudi Arabia, says:      

Shiites, without any doubt, are blasphemous due to four reasons:

1- They have doubts about the Holy Quran and criticize it!

2- They criticize the Tradition and the Sahihs and do not follow them! That is because these traditions are quoted from those companions, who in their view are considered as blasphemous. They believe all companions were blasphemous after death of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) except for Ali, his family, Salman, Ammar, and some others, but the three Khalifas and all those who paid homage to them are apostate and because of that, their traditions are not acceptable! That is what mentioned in Kafi and other books of Shiites!

3- They consider Sunnis as blasphemous!

4- They, explicitly, act like a polytheist and exaggerate about Ali and his family and consider them as accompanying God!

- Al-lolo al-Makin mena Fatava Fazilah al-Sheikh ibn Jibreen , p. 39 .

Sheikh Adil Kalbani:

Sheikh Adil Kalbani, the leader of Friday Salat of Masjid Al Haram, announced in an interview with BBC that:

I cannot accept that someone who knows the position of the first Khalifa insults him and claims to get close to God by enmity with him and disrespecting and insulting him and curses the first Khalifa. I cannot call such a person Muslim and there is no doubt that he is blasphemous.

Sunnis’ View about the One Who Insults the Companions:

Sunni scholars have different rules and ideas about someone who insults the companions. Here is a short overlook on them; Insulting the companions is a great sin and it is forbidden, anyone who disrespects or insults the companions is not Muslim, he should not be touched even when he is dead, narrating a quotation from the one who insults the companions is forbidden, the one who insults the companions may not use “fei”, the one who insults the companions is sentenced to be executed or Ta’zir (that is a corporal punishment), etc.

Insulting the companions is a clearly forbidden act and is a great sin

Nuwi, in Sharh Sahih Muslim, writes:

Beware that insulting the companions is forbidden and is clearly a sin. It does not make any difference that the companion was loyal to Islam until the end of his life or not. That is because they have fought in wars and tried a lot.

And Qazi also had said “Insulting one of companions is a great sin”.

- Tohfah al-Ahozi explain Jameh al-Tirmidhi , vol. 10 , p. 249 , by Muhammad Abdul Rahman ibn Abdul Rahim al-Mubarak Fouri Abu al-Ahla ( died 1353 A.H. ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Beirut .

- Sharh Sahih Moslim by Novy , footnote of chapter : تحريم سب الصحابة

Also Zahabi says:

One of the greatest sins is insulting the companions.

- Al-kabaer book LelZahabi  , p. 233 .

Insulting the companions excludes one from the religion

Zahabi continues the above mentioned sentence by saying:

Anyone who insults the companions and taunts them, he is excluded from the religion and is not a member of Islamic society any more.

- Al-kabaer book LelZahabi  , p. 233 .

Ibne Timiya says:

Abu Yali says “Scholars think (about the one who insults the companions) that if he considers this work as legitimate, he is blasphemous. If not (and he does not consider this work as legitimate, but commits that), he is lecher. It makes no difference whether he considers them as pagan or criticizes their religion (and being Muslim)”.

When Muhammad Ibne Yusif Faryabi was asked about someone who insulted Abubakr, he replied “Such a person is pagan”.

- Al-Sarem al-Maslol Ali Shatem al-Rasoul , vol. 3 , p. 1061 , by Ahmad ibn Abdul Halim ibn Taymiyyah al-Harani Abu al-Abbas , ( died : 728 A.H ) , Dar al-Nashr ; Dar Ibn Hazm – Beirut – 1417 A.H. , al-Tabaha ; 1 , research by Muhammad Abdullah Umar al-Halvani , Muhammad kabir Ahmad Shodari .

Abu Hamid Muqaddasi said:

Abu Jafar Al Baqer said “Anyone who insults companions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) is not among his nation (and he is not Muslim)”.

- Resala fi al-Rad Ali al-Rafezah , p. 303 .

Do not touch the body of the one who insults the companions

When Muhammad Ibne Yusif Faryabi was asked about someone who insulted Abubakr, he, too, replied “He is pagan”. They asked “Can we say salat to his corpse?” He replied “No!” They asked “What should we do to his corpse? He has testified to unity of Allah”. He replied “Do not touch him with your hands. Just push him into the tomb with help of a stick”.

- Al-Sarem al-Maslol Ali Shatem al-Rasoul , vol. 3 , p. 1061 , by Ahmad ibn Abdul Halim ibn Taymiyyah al-Harani Abu al-Abbas , ( died : 728 A.H ) , Dar al-Nashr ; Dar Ibn Hazm – Beirut – 1417 A.H. , al-Tabaha ; 1 , research by Muhammad Abdullah Umar al-Halvani , Muhammad kabir Ahmad Shodari .

Quoting a tradition from one who insults the companions is forbidden

Yahya Ibne Moin said “Anyone who insults Othman, Talhe, or any other of companions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH), he is liar and his traditions should not be written and may God, His angels, and all people curse him”.

- Tarikh ibn Moein (Revayah al-Duri ) vol. 3 , p. 546 , No. 2670 , by Yahya ibn Moein Abu Zakarya , ( died 233 A.H. ) , Dar al-Nashr : Center of al-Bahs al-Elmi va Ahya al-Tras al-Islami – Mecca al-Mokarramah – 1399 A.H. – 1979 A.D. , al-Tabaha ; 1 , research by Dr. Ahmad Muhammad Nour Seif .

The one who insults the companions does not have the right to use Fei (a special kind of trophy of war)

It is quoted from Malik Ibne Anas that anyone who insults the companions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) does not have the right to use “fei” (which is a kind of trophy of war).

- Sharh Usool Ehteghad Ahl al-Sunnah va al-Jamaha menal – ketab va al-Sunnah va Ejmah al-sahabah ((Sunni belief) , vol. 7 , p. 1268 , No. 2400 , by Hubullah ibn al-Hassan ibn Mansour al-Lalkaei Abu al-Qasim , ( died 418 A.H. ) , Dar al-Nashr ; Dar Tayyebah – Riyadh – 1402 A.H. , Research by Dr. Ahmad Saad Hamdan .

The one who thinks that the companions should be insulted must be burned

Soyuti says:

If one thinks that the companions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) should be insulted, we believe that he should be burned and even more than only being burned!

- Al-Qam al-Hajar Leman Zaki Sab Abi Bakr va Umar , p. 66 , research by Marzouq Ali Ibrahim .

The one who insults the companions is sentenced to be executed or Ta’zir (that is a corporal punishment)

There are several opinions about someone who insults the companions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) which are proposed by Sunni scholars:

1- If he insults each of companions, he is sentenced to ta’zir (which is a corporal punishment).

2- If he insults each of companions, he is sentenced to death and must be executed.

3- If someone insults Sheikhain (the first two Khailfas) or Hassanain (Imam Hassan and Imam Hussein), he is sentenced to be executed.

4- Someone who excommunicated Sheikhain (the first two Khailfas), he must be executed and his repentance may not be accepted.

5- Someone who excommunicates the companions that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) promised them to go to the Paradise and are introduced as faithful and believer, he must be executed.

6- The one who insults wives of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) should be killed and the one who insults Sheikhain (the first two Khalifas) should be whipped.

He is sentenced to ta’zir

Ibne Hajar says:

There are different ideas about those who insult the companions. Ayyaz believed that public thinks that the person should be sentenced to ta’zir.

- Fatah al-Bary , Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari , vol. 7 , p. 36 , by Ahmad ibn Ali ibn Hajar Abulfazl al-Asghalani al-Shafei , ( died 852 A.H. ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar al-Mahrefah – Beirut , research by Moheb al-Din al-khatib .

Also Nowi said:

Qazi Ayyaz said “Insulting one of companions is a great sin and we, as well as the public, believe that he is sentenced to ta’zir and not death”.

- Sharh Sahih Moslim by Novy , footnote of chapter : تحريم سب الصحابة

The insulter of the companions must be killed

There are different ideas about the person who insulted the companions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH). Some of Malekis believe that the person should be killed.

- Fatah al-Bary , Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari , vol. 7 , p. 36 , by Ahmad ibn Ali ibn Hajar Abulfazl al-Asghalani al-Shafei , ( died 852 A.H. ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar al-Mahrefah – Beirut , research by Moheb al-Din al-khatib .

Anyone who criticizes any of the companions is pagan and is not Muslim anymore and his solution is sword (and must be beheaded) if he does not repent!

- Usool al-Sarakhsi , vol. 2 , p. 134 , by Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Abi Sahl al-Sarakhsi Abu Bakr ( Died : 490 A.H. ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar al-Mahrefah – Beirut .

The one who insults the two Sheikhs (Abubakr and Omar) and Hassanain (Imam Hassan and Imam Hussein) should be killed

There are different ideas about the one who insults the companions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) … some of Shafeis believe that the one who insults Sheikhain (the first two Khalifas) and Hassanain should be killed. Qazi Hussein has two reasons for this.

- Fatah al-Bary , Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari , vol. 7 , p. 36 , by Ahmad ibn Ali ibn Hajar Abulfazl al-Asghalani al-Shafei , ( died 852 A.H. ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar al-Mahrefah – Beirut , research by Moheb al-Din al-khatib .

The one who insults the two Sheikhs (Abubakr and Omar) should be killed and his repentance should be accepted

If he insults Abubakr or Omar or criticizes them, his punishment is death! According to the idea of the author, his repentance should not be accepted! It is what could be seen in Jowhara!  

- Durr al-Ahkam Sharh Qurar al-Ahkam , vol. 3 , p. 416 , by Muhammad ibn Faramoz al-Shahir Bemanla KHosrow ( died 885 A.H ) , Died : 885 .

Abdul Rahman Ibne Ibzi says “I asked my father about his opinion about someone who insults Abubakr. He replied ‘He must be killed’. I said ‘What if he insulted Omar?’ He replied ‘He must be killed!’”

- Joz al-Asbahani , vol. 1 , p. 103 , No. 24 , by Muhammad ibn Asem ( died 262 A.H. ) .

In the book “Ashbah”, it is written “Repentance of any polytheist, in this world or in the Hereafter, will be accepted except for that of the one who insults the Holy Prophet (PBUH) or the two Sheikhs!

- Tanqih al-Fatava al-Hamediah , vol. 2 , p. 178 , by Ibn Abedin , Muhammad Amin ibn Umar ( died 1252 A.H. ) , Died : 1252 .

Second: being excommunicated because of insulting Abubakr and Omar; In the books “Khulasa” and “Bizariya” it is explicitly mentioned that when a Rafizi (which means heretic and refers to Shiites) insults the Sheikhain or criticizes them, he is a pagan and if he considers Ali superior to the two, he is a heretic and there is nothing about acceptability or rejection of his repentance.

In “Jowhara”, it is said that the one who insults or criticizes the Sheikhain is pagan and should be killed. Well, if he repents and stops doing so and turns back to Islam again, will his repentance be accepted?

“Sadr Shahid” believed that his return (to Islam) and repentance could not be accepted and we will kill him. Also Faqihs Abu Al Leith Samarqandi and Abu Nasr Dabusi had the same idea and we, too, believe in what they said.

- Al-Bahr al-Raegh Sharh Kanz al-Daqaeq , vol. 5 , p. 136 , by Zein al-Din IBN Najim al-Hanafi , ( died 970 A.H ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar al-Mahrefah – Beirut , al-Tabaha ; 2 .

The one who insults the two Sheikhs (Abubakr and Omar) or anyone who has been promised the Paradise should be killed

There are different ideas about those who insult the companions … it is probably death that the one who insults the Sheikhain deserves. It is also the same about the one who insults those who are introduced faithful by the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and were promised the Paradise. This is when the evidence for this is repeated. That might lead to rejection of what the Holy Prophet (PBUH) said.

- Fatah al-Bary , Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari , vol. 7 , p. 36 , by Ahmad ibn Ali ibn Hajar Abulfazl al-Asghalani al-Shafei , ( died 852 A.H. ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar al-Mahrefah – Beirut , research by Moheb al-Din al-khatib .

The one who insults Abubakr and Omar should be whipped and the one who insults Mothers of Believers should be killed

It is quoted from Husham Ibne Ammar who heard it from Malik Ibne Anas who said “Anyone who insults Abubakr and Omar will be whipped and the one who insults Aisha will be killed!” He was said “Why the punishment of one who insults Aisha is death while that of the one who insults Abubakr and Omar is being whipped?” He replied “God, in the story of Afak, says ‘God tells you if you are faithful, do not repeat it’! So, anyone who insults Aisha has stood against the Holy Quran and anyone who acts against what is said in the Holy Quran should be killed”!

Ibne Hizm says “What Malik says in this regard is true and insulter to Aisha is apostate and rejection of God who has considered her clean”!

It is also the same about other wives of the Holy Prophet (PBUH). There is no difference here!

- Al-Mahalli , vol. 11 , p. 414 , by Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Saiid ibn Hazm al-Zaheri Abu Muhammad ( died 456 A.H ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar al-Afaq – al-Jadidah – Beirut , research by Lejanah Ehya al-Tras Al-Arabi .

Using insulting the Khalifas and companions as an excuse for a Fatwa to kill Shiites and occupying their assets

Ibne Kathir and Abu Al Fada quote that a number of Shiites were killed with this excuse that they have insulted Abubakr and Omar and this matter was used as an excuse for possessing their assets.      

Another incidence of the year 407 after hijrat was massacre of Shiites in northern Africa. They chased and killed whatever Shiites who were living there!

That happened because Muiz Al Din Badis went to Qirwan and passed by a group of people. He asked about them. They answered that they are Rafizi (Shiites) and insult Abubakr and Omar. Muiz replied “God is satisfied with Abubakr and Omar”! That was why people attacked them and they made a quarrel and killed them to possess their belongings and assets.

- Al-Mokhtasar fi Akhbar al-Bashar , vol. 1 , p. 250 , by Abu al-Fada Emad al-Din Ismail ibn Ali ( died 732 A.H. ) , Died : 732 A.H.

- Al-kamel fi al-Tarikh , vol. 8 , p. 114 , by Abu al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi al-karam Muhammad ibn Muhammad Abdul Karim al-Shaibani , ( died 630 A.H. ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Beirut – 1415 A.H. . , al-Tabaha ; second edition , research by Abdullah al-Qazi .

Anyone who kills a rafizi (which refers to Shiites) who insulted Abubakr and Omar will go to the Paradise   

In the writings and words of Sunni scholars, Rafizi (meaning heretic) refers to the one who insults Abubakr and Omar!

Son of Ahmad Ibne Hanbal says “I asked m father who a rafizi is. He replied ‘Anyone who insults Abubakr and Omar’”.

- Tabaqat al-Hanableh , vol. 1 , p. 182 , by Muhammad ibn Abi Yali Abu al-Hussein , ( died 521 A.H ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar al-Mahrefah – Beirut , research by Muhammad Hamed al-Faqi .

Sultan Murad IV, the Othmani king, decided to attack Iran and he wanted to use fatwa of religious leaders to set a civil war among Muslims. But none of those scholars agreed with him except for a young one named Nuh Afandi. He issued a fatwa against all Shiites, which were called by him as Rafizi. He said “Anyone kills a Rafizi, someone who insults Abubakr or Muawiya, will certainly go to the Paradise”.

- About the book called “al-Oqod al-Duryah fi Tanqih al-Fatava al-Hamediah” p. 102 and 103.

Anyone who doubts about their blasphemy and permission to their killing, is a blasphemous like them … these blasphemous miscreants should be killed, whether they repent or not! Even keeping them alive with receiving Jaziya (money that non-Muslims pay to the Islamic government) from them is not allowed! Even safe-conducting them, temporarily or permanently, is not allowed!

Their wives may be arrested as slaves since slaving wife of a pagan who is killed in a war is allowed and anywhere in which people do not submit to Khilafat is included! It is the same about their children!

This fatwa led to death of thousands of Muslims in these wars. As an instance, 40000 Shiites were killed in Halab due to this fatwa.

- See Trasna journal vol. 6 p. 32.The position of the Shiites from attacks by opponents.

Continuation of this attack until the present time

Such attacks and excuses have continued until the present time and fatwa of Bin Jibrin, the Mufti of Saudi Arabia, words of Sheikh Adil Kalbani, and those of other Sunni scholars which were mentioned until here can be interpreted in this regard.    

Double Standard! Different Reactions toward Insulting the Khalifas and Insulting and Killing Ali Ibne Abi Talib (AS)

Bukhari in his Sahih quotes the Holy Prophet (PBUH):

Insulting Muslims is cause of corruption and fighting him is blasphemy.

- Sahih Bukhari , vol. 5 , p. 2247 , No. 5697 , chapter ما يُنْهَى من السِّبَابِ وَاللَّعْن , By Muhammad ibn Ismail Abu Abdullah al-Bukhari al-Jafi , ( died 256 A.H ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar Ibn kasir , al-Yamama – Beirut – 1407 A.H. – 1987 A.D. , al-Tabaha : 3 , research by Dr. Mustafa Dib al-Bagha .

When we talk about cursing the companions or Khalifas, they issue fatwa and believe that the curser must be killed, but when it comes to murder and enmity of Ali Ibne Abi Talib (AS), they only say that the person had done a personal analysis and interpretation and he only made a mistake and he will be rewarded for that! At most, if they have enmity with that person, they sentence him to ta’zir!

The sin of insulting Ali (AS) is lesser than insulting Abubakr, Omar, and Othman

Ibne Timiya says:

There is no doubt that none of the companions should be insulted, neither Othman nor Ali. And of course the sin of insulting Abubakr and Omar is greater than that of insulting Ali!

- Menhaj al-Sunnah al-Nobovyah , vol. 4 , p. 46 , by Ahmad ibn Abdul Halim ibn Taymiyyah al-Harani Abu al-Abbas (died : 728 A.H) , Dar al-Nashr : institute of Qurtabah – 1406 A.H. , al-Tabaha ; 1 , research by Dr. Muhammad Reshad Salem .

Is there any tradition which is quoted about Abubakr, Omar, or Othman that in there Imam Ali (AS) is excluded?

Aren’t these traditions those who banned insulting all companions? Then, what is the difference between insulting Abubakr, Omar, and Othman and insulting Imam Ali Ibne Abi Talib (AS)?

The one who insults Abubakr, Omar, and Othman should be killed and his corpse should be burned, but the one who insults Ali (AS) is only sentenced to Ta’zir

Someone insulted Imam Ali Ibne Abi Talib (AS). They took him to the court. He was asked “What was the punishment of someone who would insult Abubakr, Omar, or Othman?” He replied “He would be killed and burned”. But finally he was lashed only 30 times.

Someone claimed that Salim insulted Ali. He was taken to the court. Ibrahim Ibne Abibakr Ibne Ayyash was always in the Great Mosque. One day his son, who was named Salim, was talking to some others about the issue of Khilafat and Khalifas. The man claimed that Salim had said that Ali is oppressor and killed innocent people and he is no match to position of Khialfat.

Two other people testified in front of the court who had never testified before and one of them was a worker in the public baths.

Some faqihs such as Yahya Ibne Abdul Hamid Hamani, Qatna Ibne Ala, Walid Ibne Hamad, and Abi Shiba’s family members gathered and Salim, the other man, and the witnesses came together!...

Then they asked Salim “If someone had said such words that you uttered about Ali to Abubakr, Omar, or Othman, how would you punish that man?”

He replied “Being Killed and burned”.

Qassan turned to the judge and said “He issues something for himself that we do not think so”.

Finally, they took him while his hands were tied and suffered 27 of lashes. Then he shitted in his clothing and suffered three more!

- Akhbar al-Qazah , vol. 3 , p. 191 , by Muhammad ibn khalaf ibn Hayan , ( died 306 A.H. ) , Dar al-Nashr : Alam al-kotob – Beirut .

Sunnis’ idea about murderer of Othman:

Ibne Hizm’s idea

Ibne Hizm says about murders of Othman:

Ammar was killed by Abu Al Qadiya Yassar Ibne Sab Salami who participated in Rizwan Treaty. He is one those people who God knows what is going on in their hearts and minds. So, he sent them inner peace and is happy with them. That is why Abu Al Qadiya had a self justification about killing Ammar and it was his own interpretation and he will be rewarded for that!

But it is not the same about murderers of Othman. There was no place for self justification about Othman. That was because he killed no one, nor he decided to kill any. He did not exclude anyone. He, either, did not commit adultery and was no apostate!

His murderers were corrupt, competent people who killed him on purpose and it was forbidden to do so and they killed him out of their own passion and hatred. That is why his murderers were corrupt and cursed forever!

- Al-Fasl fi al-Melal va al-Ahva va al-Nahl , vol. 4 , p. 125 , by Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Saiid ibn Hazm al-Taheri Abu Muhammad , ( died 548 A.H. ) , Dar al-Nashr : Maktabah al-khanji – Cairo .

Ibne Timiya’s idea

Also, Ibne Timiya says:

Those who killed him were a group of rebellions and brutal!

- Menhaj al-Sunnah al-Nobovyah , vol. 6 , p.296 .

In another place, he says:

Those who tried to kill him all made a mistake. They were all oppressor, rebellion, and transgressor!

- Menhaj al-Sunnah al-Nobovyah , vol. 6 , p. 297 , by Ahmad ibn Abdul Halim ibn Taymiyyah al-Harani Abu al-Abbas (died : 728 A.H) , Dar al-Nashr : institute of Qurtabah – 1406 A.H. , al-Tabaha ; 1 , research by Dr. Muhammad Reshad Salem

Ibne Kathir’s idea

Ibne Kathir says about murderers of Othman:

Marwan Ibne Hakam wrote a letter on behalf of Othman … He believed that those who criticized Othman and disobeyed him were corrupters on the Earth … They were rebellions who rose against their leader … they were rebellious, ignorant, tough, betrayer, and traitor people!

- Al-Badayah va al-Nahayah , vol. 7 , p. 186 , events of Sunnah 35 A.H , by Ismail ibn Umar ibn kasir al-Qurashi Abu al-Fada , ( died 774 A.H. ) , Dar al-Nashr : Maktabah al-Maharef – Beirut .

Zahabi’s idea

Zahabi has this idea about them:

One day Hakam Ibne Husham (a famous Sunni scholar) decided to meet Mindal. When he sat down, Mindal’s companions asked him “You, Aba Muhammad! What is your opinion about Othman?” He replied “I swear to Allah, he was the best man among his people. He was commander of goodness. He was the man who was murdered by the corrupt people. He was aided by the honorable and famous people and he was undertaken by the wicked people. Those who degraded him were degraded, themselves, and those who killed him were killed. And those who aided him were aided.

- Tarikh al-Islam, vol. 11 p. 93.

Abdul Aziz Dihlawi’s idea

Some Egyptians disobeyed the third Khalifa and rebelled against him. And some others, who were Christian, Jew, or of other religions and joined Islam during reign of the first two Khalifas, helped them. Naturally, they meant to attack Islam.

- Tohfah Asna Ashariah , p. 8 .

He also says:

Those who rebelled against Othman were foreigner (and not Muslims).

- Al-Shiite va Ahl Bayt ,  p. 152 .

In another place, he says:

Murderers of Othman, or those who helped them to kill him, were those who helped Sab’iyan and they created the sect “Sab’iya”.

- Al-Shiite va Al-Tashayuh , p. 77 .

Muhammad Ibne Abdul Wahhab’s idea

He says:

Abdullah Ibne Saba gathered a large number of people around him when he was exiled to Egypt by Othman. He started to stimulate people against Othman. They excommunicated Othman and decided to remove him from power. This resulted in what happened.

- Majmoha al-Mohallefat , vol. 4 , p. 316 .

And in another place, he introduces those who were deceived by Abdullah Ibne Saba! It is interesting that among them names of some companions such as Amro Ibne Al Humaq could be seen:

Commander of murderers were ten people: Kumail Ibne Ziyad, Malik Ashtar Nakha’i, Alqama Ibne Qais Nakha’i, Thabit Ibne Qais Nakha’i, Jundab Ibne Zuhair Amiri, Jundab Ibne Ka’b Azdi, Urwa Ibne Ju’d, Amro Ibne Al Humaq Khazai, Sasat Ibne Sawhan and his brother Zied Ibne Sawhan, F Ibne Kawa. These were the people who were exiled to Sham form Iraq by Othman. Muawiya welcomed them and respected them and advised them, but they did not leave their ignorance, wickedness, and aberration. That was why Muawiya exiled them from Sham, too and they refuge to an island and remained in Hums. It continued until the time of beginning of sedition and they set this sedition to kill Othman!

- Majmoha al-Mohallefat , vol. 4 , p. 314 .

Sunni Scholars’ Idea about Enemies and Murderer of Imam Ali (AS)!

Murderer of Ali (AS) did according to his own interpretation and will be rewarded by God!

Ibne Hizm says that there is an agreement among all Muslims that Ibne Muljim had acted according to his own interpretation and justification to kill Ali (AS) and he considered himself true and right in doing so!!!

All Muslims agree upon this matter that Ibne Muljim acted upon his justification and interpretation in killing Ali (AS) and he considered himself right in doing so. That is why Imran Ibne Hattan, the Safariya (a group of Khawarij) poet says “What a great stroke he did, that man of goodness/ He meant nothing by that but approaching satisfaction of Allah”!

When I remember him, I find him someone whose deeds, in front of Allah, are more precious than the others!

- Al-Mahalli , vol. 10 , p. 484 , by Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Saiid ibn Hazm al-Zaheri Abu Muhammad ( died 456 A.H ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar al-Afaq – al-Jadidah – Beirut , research by Lejanah Ehya al-Tras Al-Arabi .

In Al-Uma al-Shafei, Mokhtasar al-Muzani by Ismail al-Muzani, AL-Majmoh al-Novy, Moqni al-Mohtaj by Muhammad ibn al-Sherbini , Al-Johar al-Naqi al-Mardini the same matters are mentioned to defend Ibne Muljim!

- Book Al-Uma al-Shafei , vol. 4 , p. 229 , Mokhtasar al-Muzani by Ismail al-Muzani , 256 , AL-Majmoh al-Novy , vol. 19 , p. 197 , Moqni al-Mohtaj by Muhammad ibn al-Sherbini , vol. 4 , p. 124 , al-Johar al-Naqi al-Mardini , vol. 8 , p. 58 .

Murderer of Ali (AS) was a man of salat and fastening and killed him for the sake of God

Ibne Timiya says:

The man who killed Ali, used to say salat and fasten and read the Quran. He killed him with the intension of satisfaction of God and His Messenger. It was his purpose and goal, though he was false in doing so and it was heresy!

- Menhaj al-Sunnah , vol. 1 , p.153 .

Murderer of Ali (AS) was the most praising man

In another place, he writes:

One of Khawarij killed Ali. He was named Abdul Rahman Ibne Muljim Muradi. Meanwhile, he was among the most praising men of his age and he was a man of book!

- Menhaj al-Sunnah , vol. 5 , p.47 .

How is it possible that a man who is introduced by the Holy Prophet (PBUH) as “the naughtiest man ever” and is compared to killer of the camel of the Prophet Salih is introduced as a Mujtahid? Then why those who killed Othman did not the right of self justification?

The Holy Prophet’s word about killer of Imam Ali (AS)

Ibne Hajar Heithami in Al Sawaiq Al Muhraqa has the following tradition and approves its reference:

Tabarani and Abu Yali quoted the Holy Prophet (PBUH) a tradition which is narrated some people who all are acceptable and reliable people but one of them, who was later known as reliable. One day the Holy Prophet (PBUH) said to Ali (AS) “Who is the naughtiest of the first (older) generation (of people)?” He replied “The man who fled the Camel”. The prophet confirmed what he said. Then he said “Who is the naughtiest of the later generations?” Ali (AS) replied “I do not know”. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) replied “The one who will stab you in here …” and touched Ali’s forehead.

- Al-Savaheq va al-Moharaqah Ali Ahl al-Rafaz va al-zalal va al-zadaqah , vol. 2 , p. 362 , by Abu al-Abbas Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Hajar al-Haithami , ( died 973 A.H. ) , Dar al-Nashr : institute of al-Resala – Lebanon – 1417 A.H. – 1997 A.D. , al-Tabaha ; 1 , research by Abdul Rahman ibn Abdullah al-Turkey – kamel Muhammad al-kharrat .

Similar traditions with almost the same content could be seen in the following:

- Al-Mahjam al-kabir , vol. 2 , p. 247 , No. 2037 , vol. 8 , p. 38 , Dar al-Nashr : Maktabah al-Zahra – Mosel – 1404 A.H. – 1983 A.D. , al-Tabaha ; 2 , research by Hamdi ibn Abdul Majid al-Salafi .

- Al-Estihab , vol. 3 , p. 1125 , by Ibn Abdul Barr ( died 463 A.H. ) , Dar al-Nashr ; Dar al-Jil – Beirut – 1412 A.H. , al-Tabaha ; 1 , research by Ali Muhammad al-Bedjaoui .

- Al-Mabsout al-Sarakhsi , vol. 30 , p. 212 , by Shamsuddin al-Sarakhsi , ( died 483 A.H. ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar al-Mahrefah – Beirut .

- Al-keshaf , vol. 2 , p. 115 , by Zamakhshari al-kharazmi , ( died 538 A.H. ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar Ahya al-Tras al-Arabi – Beirut , research by Abdul Razzaq al-Mehdi .

- Al-Montazam , vol. 5 , p. 174 , by Ibn al-Jozi Abu al-Faraj , ( died 597 A.H. ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar Sader – Beirut – 1358 A.H. , al-Tabaha ; 1 .

- Asad al-Qabah , vol. 4 , p. 126 , by Ibn al-Asir , ( died 630 A.H. ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar Ahya al-Tras al-Arabi – Beirut / Lebanon – 1417 A.H. – 1996 A.D. , al-Tabaha ; 1 , research by Adel Ahmad al-Refaei .

- Al-Tabaqat al-kubra , vol. 3 , p. 35 .

- Al-Imam va al-Syasah , vol. 1 , p. 182 .

- Ansab al-Ashraf , vol. 3 , p. 259 .

- Tarikh Damascus, vol. 42, p. 550.

- Musnad Ahmad, vol. 1, p. 130.

- Khasaes Amir al-Moaminin Nisaei , p. 39 .

- Sunnan Kubra Baihaqi , vol. 8 , p. 59 .

How is it possible that when the Holy Prophet (PBUH) introduced the murderer of Ali (AS) as the naughtiest man, he is considered as Mujtahid and, according to accurate traditions of Sunnis and their scholars’ opinions, he will be rewarded for his self justification?! But murderers of Othman do not have this right, while people such as Abdul Rahman Ibne Udais, who was member of Shajara Treaty, are seen among killers of Othman?!

Ibne Jowzi in Al Muntazam writes:

Abdul Rahman Ibne Udais Balwi paid homage to the Holy Prophet (PBUH) under a tree and he quoted tradition from the Prophet. He was present in the conquest of Egypt and was among commanders. He was commander of the cavalry which moved to Othman from Egypt.

- Al-Montazam fi Tarikh al-Molok va al-umam , vol. 5 , p. 114 , by Abdul Rahman ibn Ali ibn Muhammad ibn al-Jozi Abu al-Faraj , ( died 597 A.H. ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar Sader – Beirut – 1358 A.H. , al-Tabaha ; 1 .

- Tarikh al-Islam va vafyat al-Mashahir va al-Ahlam , vol. 3 , p. 531 , by Shamsuddin Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Ottoman al-Zahabi , ( died 748 A.H. ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar al-ketab al-Arabi –Lebanon / Beirut – 1407 A.H. – 1992 A.D. , al-Tabaha ; 1 , research by Dr. Umar Abdul Salam Tadmouri .

- Al-Esabah fi Tamiiz al-sahabah , vol. 4 , p. 334 , No. 5167 , by Ahmad ibn Ali ibn Hajar Abulfazl al-Asghalani al-Shafei , ( died 852 A.H. ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar al-Jil – Beirut – 1412 A.H. – 1992 A.D. , al-Tabaha ; 1 , Ali Muhammad al-Bedjaoui .

What is the difference between Abdul Rahman Ibne Udais, who attacked Othman, and Ibne Muljim? What is the difference between aggressors of Othman and invaders of Ali (AS)? What is the difference between murderers of Ammar and killers of Othman while Ammar’s killers could act according to their justification and analysis and killers of Othman could not?!

 

 

Analyzing View of Shiites and Sunnis about the Companions

Shiites’ view about companions:

To clarify that Shiites’ intention in cursing enemies of religion is not enmity toward the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and all companions, first we should talk about Shiites’ view about the companions.

Shiites could not vote for justice of all companions as do Sunnis. They cannot consider them innocent and cannot believe that companions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) had never committed any sins and they were not subject and addressee of some verses of the Holy Quran. That is because God says to the Holy Prophet (PBUH), who is best of creatures:

“Say: “O my People! Do whatever ye can: I will do (my part): but soon will ye know- (Sura Al Zumar, verse 39)

“And if the messenger were to invent any sayings in Our name, We should certainly seize him by his right hand, And We should certainly then cut off the artery of his heart” (Sura Al Haqqa, verses 44 to 46)

“And had We not given thee strength, thou wouldst nearly have inclined to them a little. In that case We should have made thee taste an equal portion (of punishment) in this life, and an equal portion in death: and moreover thou wouldst have found none to help thee against Us!” (Sura Al Isra, verse 74 and 75)

Although Shiites consider words of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) as the most honorable and reliable of the words, but, according to verses of the Holy Quran, traditions from the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and Ahle Bait, believes that companions were of three types:

The first group of companions:

Those who followed orders of Allah and the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and some of them were martyred side by side the Holy Prophet (PBUH) in wars. All Shiites believed that they were religious people and they will go to the Paradise. Here are some instances:

1- Those who were killed during lifetime of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)

They were the companions who defended Islam honestly and were martyred during lifetime of the Holy Prophet (PBUH). According to Sunni references, the number of such companions who were martyred in different wars was 259.

- See Rahmah Lelalamin , Sirah al-Nabi al-omi the Holy Prophet (PBUH) God bless him and peace , chapter:  Wars of the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) , by al-Qazi Muhammad Suleiman Salman al-Mansour Fouri , Translator : Dr. Samir Abdul Hamid Ibrahim / Dar al-salam / Riyadh .

2- Those who died during lifetime of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and were believers and faithful

The second group was those who died at the lifetime of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and they had full faith to Islam. This group includes a large number of companions.

3- Those who remained loyal to the belief of Imamat of Imam Ali (AS)

The third group was those who believed in Imamat and Khilafat of Imam Ali (AS) after the death of the Holy Prophet (PBUH), according to his own will. They defended Imam Ali (AS). They were among the greatest companions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) though they were not too many. In Khitat Al Sham, some of them are named as Salman, Abuzar, Abu Said Khedri, Ammar Yasir, Hazifa Ibne Yaman, Abu Ayyub Ansari, Khalid Ibne Said, Qais Ibne Sad.

He says:

Some of great companions were known as lovers of Imam Ali (AS) during lifetime of the Holy Prophet (PBUH). For example, Salman Farsi said “We paid homage to the Holy Prophet (PBUH) to try for benevolence of people and to assign Ali (AS) as our Imam and Master”.

And also like Abu Said Khedri who said “People were ordered 5 things. They did four and left one”. When he was asked about the four, he replied “Salat, Zakat, fastening, and hajj”. About the one, he said “It is Wilayat of Ali Ibne Abi Talib (AS)”. They told him “Was wilayat like the other four obligatory to people?” He replied “Yes! Welayat was obligatory like all the others”.

And it is the same about Abuzar Qaffari, Ammar Yasir, Hazifa Ibne Yaman, Zi Al Shahadatain, Abu Ayyub Ansari, Khalid Ibne Said, and Qais Ibne Sad.

But what some writers say that Shiism is a heresy by Abdullah Ibne Saba is a hallucination. That is because they do not have enough information about it.

- Khetat al-Sham Muhammad kord Ali, vol. 5, p. 251.

Subhi Salih adds some more to this list. They are:

Miqdad Ibne Aswad, Jabir Ibne Abdullah, Abi Ibne Ka’b, Abu Al Tafil Omar Ibne Waila, Abbas Ibne Abdul Mutallib, and all his sons.

He says:

Among companions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH), some were followers of Ali (AS) during lifetime of the Holy Prophet (PBUH), namely Abuzar Qaffari, Miqdad Ibne Aswad, Jabir Ibne Abdullah, Abi Ibne Ka’b, Abu Al Tafil Omar Ibne Waila, Abbas Ibne Abdul Mutallib and all his sons, Ammar Yasir, and Abu Ayyub Ansari.

- Al-Nazm al-Islami , p. 96 .

4- Those who returned to Imam Ali (AS) after a while

Some of companions joined Imam Ali (AS) after a while (and a period of separation). They fought alongside with him in wars of Jamal, Seffein, and Nahrawan, and even some of them were martyred. And some others remained loyal to him until the end of their lives and supported him with all their ability.

The companions who defended Imam Ali (AS) in the war of Jamal

The number of companions of Imam Ali (AS) in the war of Jamal is 1500 according to Shiite sources and 800 according to Sunni sources!

Sheikh Tousi and Qazi Na’man Maqribi wrote “There were eighty people of those who fought in the war of Badr and 1500 companions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) were with Ali (AS) in the war of Jamal”.

- Al-Amali by al-Tusi , p. 726 , No. 1527 , sharh al-Akhbar , vol. 1 , p. 489 No. 350 .

Also Zahabi writes:

Said Ibne Jubair says “Eight hundred of Ansar and four hundred of members of Rezwan treaty were with Ali in the war of Jamal”.

It is quoted from Sudai who said “130 people who fought in the war of Badr and 700 of companions were with Ali (AS) in the war of Jamal”.

- Tarikh al-Islam, vol. 3 p. 484, Tarikh khalifa ibn khayyat , p. 138 , al-Aqd al-Farid , vol. 3 , p. 314 .

The companions who defended Imam Ali (AS) in the war of Seffein

Masoudi has said:

2800 of companions helped Ali (AS) in the war of Seffein. They included 87 people who fought in the war of Badr and 900 of Ansar and Muhajirin who paid homage to the Holy Prophet (PBUH) under Shajara”.

- Moravaj al-zahab , vol. 2 , p. 361 .

The second group of companions:

Those who stood against divine rules and Quran explicitly and clearly called them “corrupt”:

“O ye who believe! If a wicked person comes to you with any news, ascertain the truth, lest ye harm people unwittingly, and afterwards become full of repentance for what ye have done” (Sura Al Hujuraat, verse 6)

Or introduces them as people in whose hearts is a disease:

“And behold! The Hypocrites and those in whose hearts is a disease (even) say: “Allah and His Messenger promised us nothing but delusion!” (Sura Al Ahzab, verse 12)

And more important than the others, some of his companions desired the Holy Prophet’s death, so that they could marry his wives. This bothered the Holy Prophet (PBUH) a lot:

“Nor is it right for you that ye should annoy Allah´s Messenger, or that ye should marry his widows after him at any time. Truly such a thing is in Allah´s sight an enormity” (Sura Al Ahzab, verse 53)

Quran, clearly and explicitly, cursed those who annoyed the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and informed them that they will be burned in the Fire (of the Hell):

“Those who annoy Allah and His Messenger - Allah has cursed them in this World and in the Hereafter, and has prepared for them a humiliating Punishment” (Sura Al Ahzab, verse 57)

In the Tradition of the Holy Prophet (PBUH), there are several traditions about this group of people. In the famous “Hadith of Howz”, it is clearly mentioned that a large number of companions will deviate from the true path after death of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and except for a small minority, others will go to the Hell:

Then, I see as few as a small number of camels without a cameleer (that means a very small number) of these people (my companions) who could survive!

- Sahih al-Bukhari , vol. 7 , p. 207 , H – 6587 , Book al-Reqaq chapter في الحوض

The third group of companions:

The third group of companions is those hypocrites in whose blame, God sent down a special Sura and in that, it is explained that their system is so complicated that even the Holy Prophet (PBUH) could not recognize them:

“Certain of the desert Arabs round about you are hypocrites, as well as (desert Arabs) among the Medina folk: they are obstinate in hypocrisy: thou knowest them not: We know them: twice shall We punish them: and in addition shall they be sent to a grievous penalty” (Sura Al Towba, verse 101)

And he promised the Holy Prophet (PBUH) to identify the hypocrites according to their words and behavior:

“Had We so wiled, We could have shown them up to thee, and thou shouldst have known them by their marks: but surely thou wilt know them by the tone of their speech! And Allah knows all that ye do” (Sura Muhammad, verse 30)

And in reliable Sunni sources, there are several traditions that some companions had been infected with hypocrisy. In Sahih Muslim, there is a tradition from the Holy Prophet (PBUH) which reads:

Twelve of my companions are hypocrite.

- Sahih Moslim , vol. 8 , p. 122 , ( No. 2779- 9 ) , Book Sefat al-Munafiqin.

And Bukhari quotes Ibne Malika who said “I met thirty of companions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and all of them were afraid of self-hypocrisy!

- Sahih al-Bukhari , vol. 1 , p. 17 , Book al-Iman , bab khof al-Mohmen mena  ann Yahbat Elmeh va hova la Yashar

And in Heithami’s word, the Holy Prophet (PBUH) introduced 36 of his companions as hypocrite:

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said “Truly a number of you are hypocrite. Whoever I call stands up”. And he called 36 people and they stood up!

- Majmah al-Zavaed , vol. 1 , p. 112 .

Regarding what was said, Shiites cannot accept that all companions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) are just and they all will go to the Paradise. Some of them will go to the paradise, some were corrupt and some were hypocrite. And of course this idea is according to the Holy Quran and the Tradition.

Shiite scholars’ words about companions

Sharaf Al Din Amili, a famous Shiite scholar, writes:

Those who know our idea about the companions agree that we are moderate. That is because we do not believe what Qallati believes in, that all companions are excommunicated, and also we do not think like Sunnis who believe that all of them were reliable.

Then, truly Kamiliya Sect and those who exaggerate like them consider all companions as blasphemous and, on the other side, Sunnis rely on whatever a person who had only visited the Holy Prophet (PBUH) had said and consider them just and accept all their hadiths.

But we do not consider being a companion of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) as a sign of being innocent and no committing any sins, while it is a very great virtue. Companions are like other people. Among them, great ones and scholars and friends (of Allah) and just people could be seen whereas the arrogant and hypocrites could be seen, too. There are also some others whose condition is not clearly known.

We like the just ones among them and in this world and in the hereafter we will love them, but we consider no value for those who opposed the prophet’s real successor and his brother and some others such as son of Hind, son of Nabiqa, son of Zarqa, Ibne Aqaba, Ibne Artat, and others like them who committed sins.

And those whose conditions are not clearly known, we do not speak about them.

This is our idea about those of companions who quoted hadiths and for the others, we have book of God (the Holy Quran) and the Tradition. Whatever is said in these sources we will accept. This is what reflected in our juridical books.

- Ajubah Masael Jar Allah, p. 14.

A summary of Shiite’s view

Shiites consider many of companions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) as residents of the Paradise and for those who annoyed the Holy Prophet (PBUH) with their opposition and bothered him and were hypocrites while there were so many evidences and proofs, according to verses of the Holy Quran, Shiites think that they will g to the Hell. About those whose situation was unknown, Shiites remain silent.

Sunnis’ View about the Companions

The idea of the Sunnis about companions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) is well known. They think that all companions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) were just and they will go to the Paradise!

All companions were just, friends of God, and the best of creatures after the Prophets

Qartabi writes:

All companions were just and were friends of Allah and they were His favorite ones and they were the best of people after the Messengers and Prophets!

This is belief of Sunnis and what all leaders of these people (Sunni people) believe in!
- Al-Jameh al-Ahkam al-Quran (Tafsir by al-Qurtabi), vol. 16 p. 299, by Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Ansari al-Qurtabi , ( died 671 A.H. ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar al-Shoab – Cairo .

But first, we should know what Sunnis’ definition of the companion is.

Definition of companion in the view of Sunnis

Bukhari explains companion in this way:

Any Muslim who had visited the Holy Prophet (PBUH) or had been with him is considered as a companion of the Holy Prophet (PBUH).

- Sahih Bukhari , vol. 3 , p. 1335 , Book Fazael al-Sahabah , chapter Virtues of the companions of the Prophet ( PBUH ) AND May God be satisfied with him .

Ahmad Ibne Hanbal also says:

Companions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) were all the people who were with him and set him for one month, one day, or one hour!

- Asad al-Qabah , vol. 1 , p. 12 , al-Edah fi Usool al-Fiqh , al-Fara al-Hanbali , vol. 3 , p. 988 .

Number of companion in the view of Sunnis

Ibne Jowzi and Soyuti quoted Abu Zar’a who said “The Holy Prophet (PBUH) died while he had 114000 companions!

- Talqih Fohom Ahl al-Asar by Ibn Jozi , vol. 1 , p. 73 , Tadrib al-Ravi , vol. 2 , p. 220 .

Also Ibne Kathir quotes “They were about 120000 people”.

- Al-Badayah va al-Nahayah , vol. 5 , p. 397 .

Famous companions in the view of Sunnis

From among such a large number, about eight thousand of them were known with their name or nickname. That is less than fifteen percent of them! Many of them had died or were martyred during the lifetime of the Holy Prophet (PBUH).

Ibne Hajar Asqalani writes:

I read Zahabi’s own handwriting behind the book “Tajrid” which had written that the number of all companions which were known by their names or nicknames was about eight thousand. Then I read his handwriting which read all companions who were introduced in “Asad Al Qaba” were 7554 people.

- Al-Esabah fi Tamiiz al-sahabah , vol. 1 , p. 3 .

Then he continues to say that the reason of anonymity of most of the prophet’s companions is that the majority of them were Bedouins and they had no connection to the world outside and they met the Holy Prophet (PBUH) just once in the Last Hajj.

Now, with such a definition of Sunnis about the companions and verses of the Holy Quran and traditions, can we say that all companions were just and reliable and consider them as the best creatures after the prophets?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Meaning of Curse:

One of problems in misunderstanding the meaning of curse is the false interpretation of its concept and equalizing that with insulting. So, it is necessary that we first signify the meaning of curse and insult and their difference.

Denotative meaning of curse: sending away from good things

Curse: it is sending away from good things

- Sehah Johari , vol. 6 , p. 2196 , Lesan al-Arab , vol. 13 , p. 387 .

Curse in its denotative meaning means sending away.

- Sharh Sahih Moslim , Novy , vol. 9 , p. 141 .

Denotative meaning of insult and its difference with curse:

Zubaidi writes:

Insulting means شتم.

- Taj al-Arous , vol. 2 , p. 63 .

Ibne Manzur writes:

Insulting means using bad words and it does not necessarily include accusation.

- Lesan al-Arab, vol. 12 , p. 318 .

 So, lexically, there is a huge difference between insulting and cursing. In cursing, sending away from goodness is meant while in insulting bad words are used.

 

 

 

 

Curse and insult in the Holy Quran

The word curse and its derivations are used in the Holy Quran 41 times and in most of them, curser is Allah. On the other side, the word insult is used only once and in there, it is talking about its prohibition.

Insulting in the Holy Quran

“Revile not ye those whom they call upon besides Allah, lest they out of spite revile Allah in their ignorance” (Sura Al Anaam, verse 108)

Curser in the Holy Quran

In the Holy Quran, some groups have cursed others. Here is a list:

God, Angels, all of people, the Five People (members of Ahle Bait), David and Jesus, a herald on the Resurrection Day, a cursing man (in Liaan, which is a religious matter between wife and husband), pagan people will curse each other on the Day of Resurrection and in the Hell, the cursers, and unknown people (where the sentence is in passive voice and there is no subject in the sentence).

God:

1- “Nay, Allah’s curse is on them for their blasphemy: Little is it they believe” (Sura Al Baqara, verse 88)

2- “But the curse of Allah is on those without Faith” (Sura Al Baqara, verse 89)

3- “Those who conceal the clear (Signs) We have sent down, and the Guidance, after We have made it clear for the people in the Book,-on them shall be Allah´s curse, and the curse of those entitled to curse,” (Sura Al Baqara, verse 159)

4- “Those who reject Faith, and die rejecting,- on them is Allah´s curse, and the curse of angels, and of all mankind;” (Sura Al Baqara, verse 161)

5- “Then let us earnestly pray, and invoke the curse of Allah on those who lie!” (Sura Al Imran, verse 61)

6- “But Allah guides not a people unjust. Of such the reward is that on them (rests) the curse of Allah, of His angels, and of all mankind;” (Sura Al Imran, verses 86 and 87)

7- “But Allah hath cursed them for their Unbelief; and but few of them will believe” (Sura Al Nissa, verse 46)

8- “O ye People of the Book! believe in what We have (now) revealed, confirming what was (already) with you, before We change the face and fame of some (of you) beyond all recognition, and turn them hindwards, or curse them as We cursed the Sabbath-breakers, for the decision of Allah Must be carried out” (Sura Al Nissa, verse 47)

9- “They are (men) whom Allah hath cursed: And those whom Allah Hath cursed, thou wilt find, have no one to help.” (Sura Al Nissa, verse 52)

10- “If a man kills a believer intentionally, his recompense is Hell, to abide therein (For ever): And the wrath and the curse of Allah are upon him, and a dreadful penalty is prepared for him.” (Sura Al Nissa, verse 93)

11- “(The Pagans), leaving Him, call but upon female deities: They call but upon satan the persistent rebel! Allah did curse him, but he said: "I will take of Thy servants a portion Marked off;” (Sura Al Nissa, verses 117 and 118)

12- “But because of their breach of their covenant, We cursed them, and made their hearts grow hard; they change the words from their (right) places and forget a good part of the message that was sent them, nor wilt thou cease to find them- barring a few - ever bent on (new) deceits: but forgive them, and overlook (their misdeeds): for Allah loveth those who are kind.” (Sura Al Maida, verse 13)

13- “Say: "Shall I point out to you something much worse than this, (as judged) by the treatment it received from Allah? those who incurred the curse of Allah and His wrath, those of whom some He transformed into apes and swine, those who worshipped evil;- these are (many times) worse in rank, and far more astray from the even path!” (Sura Al Maida, verse 60)

14- “The Companions of the Garden will call out to the Companions of the Fire: "We have indeed found the promises of our Lord to us true: Have you also found Your Lord´s promises true?" They shall say, "Yes"; but a crier shall proclaim between them: "The curse of Allah is on the wrong-doers;” (Sura Al Araaf, verse 44)

15- “Allah hath promised the Hypocrites men and women, and the rejecters, of Faith, the fire of Hell: Therein shall they dwell: Sufficient is it for them: for them is the curse of Allah, and an enduring punishment,” (Sura Al Tawba, verse 68)

16- “Who doth more wrong than those who invent a life against Allah? They will be turned back to the presence of their Lord, and the witnesses will say, "These are the ones who lied against their Lord! Behold! the Curse of Allah is on those who do wrong!” (Sura Hud, verse 18)

17- “And the fifth (oath) (should be) that they solemnly invoke the curse of Allah on themselves if they tell a lie.” (Sura Al Noor, verse 7)

18- “in this world We made a curse to follow them and on the Day of Judgment they will be among the loathed (and despised).” (Sura Al Qassas, verse 42)

19- “Those who annoy Allah and His Messenger - Allah has cursed them in this World and in the Hereafter, and has prepared for them a humiliating Punishment.” (Sura Al Ahzab, verse 57)

20- “Verily Allah has cursed the Unbelievers and prepared for them a Blazing Fire,” (Sura Al Ahzab, verse 64)

21- “And they would say: "Our Lord! We obeyed our chiefs and our great ones, and they misled us as to the (right) Path. “Our Lord! Give them double Penalty and curse them with a very great Curse!” (Sura Al Ahzab, verses 67 and 68)

22- “(Allah) said: “Then get thee out from here: for thou art rejected, accursed. “And My curse shall be on thee till the Day of Judgment.” (Sura Saad, verses 77 and 78)

23- “Then, is it to be expected of you, if ye were put in authority, that ye will do mischief in the land, and break your ties of kith and kin? Such are the men whom Allah has cursed for He has made them deaf and blinded their sight.” (Sura Muhammad, verses 22 and 23)

24- “And that He may punish the Hypocrites, men and women, and the Polytheists men and women, who imagine an evil opinion of Allah. On them is a round of Evil: the Wrath of Allah is on them: He has cursed them and got Hell ready for them: and evil is it for a destination.” (Sura Al Fath, verse 6)

Angels

1- “Those who reject Faith, and die rejecting,- on them is Allah´s curse, and the curse of angels, and of all mankind;” (Sura Al Baqara, verse 161)

2- “How shall Allah Guide those who reject Faith after they accepted it and bore witness that the Messenger was true and that Clear Signs had come unto them? but Allah guides not a people unjust. Of such the reward is that on them (rests) the curse of Allah, of His angels, and of all mankind;” (Sura Al Imran, verse 86 and 87)

All people

1- “Those who reject Faith, and die rejecting,- on them is Allah´s curse, and the curse of angels, and of all mankind;” (Sura Al Baqara, verse 161)

2- “How shall Allah Guide those who reject Faith after they accepted it and bore witness that the Messenger was true and that Clear Signs had come unto them? but Allah guides not a people unjust. Of such the reward is that on them (rests) the curse of Allah, of His angels, and of all mankind;” (Sura Al Imran, verse 86 and 87)

The Five People (members of Ahle Bait)

“If any one disputes in this matter with thee, now after (full) knowledge Hath come to thee, say: "Come! let us gather together,- our sons and your sons, our women and your women, ourselves and yourselves: Then let us earnestly pray, and invoke the curse of Allah on those who lie!” (Sura Al Imran, verse 61)

An explanation about this verse

It is true that in this verse, the Five say “invoke the curse of Allah”, but in fact they have cursed the other party. That is like in Liaan (which will be described later) where they ask God to curse the liar, but in fact they are called curser and it is them who curse each other.

David and Jesus

“Curses were pronounced on those among the Children of Israel who rejected Faith, by the tongue of David and of Jesus the son of Mary: because they disobeyed and persisted in excesses.” (Sura Al Maida, verse 78)

A herald on the Resurrection Day

“The Companions of the Garden will call out to the Companions of the Fire: "We have indeed found the promises of our Lord to us true: Have you also found Your Lord’s promises true?" They shall say, "Yes"; but a crier shall proclaim between them: "The curse of Allah is on the wrong-doers;” (Sura Al Aaraf, verse 44)

A cursing man (in Liaan, which is a religious matter between wife and husband)

“And the fifth (oath) (should be) that they solemnly invoke the curse of Allah on themselves if they tell a lie.” (Sura Al Noor, verse 7)

Pagan people will curse each other on the Day of Resurrection

1- “He will say: "Enter ye in the company of the peoples who passed away before you - men and jinns, - into the Fire." Every time a new people enters, it curses its sister-people (that went before), until they follow each other, all into the Fire. Saith the last about the first: "Our Lord! it is these that misled us: so give them a double penalty in the Fire." He will say: "Doubled for all" : but this ye do not understand.” (Sura Al A’raaf, verse 38)

2- “And he said: “For you, ye have taken (for worship) idols besides Allah, out of mutual love and regard between yourselves in this life; but on the Day of Judgment ye shall disown each other and curse each other: and your abode will be the Fire, and ye shall have none to help.” (Sura Al Ankaboot, verse 25)

3- “And they would say: "Our Lord! We obeyed our chiefs and our great ones, and they misled us as to the (right) Path. "Our Lord! Give them double Penalty and curse them with a very great Curse!” (Sura Al AHzab, verses 67 and 68)

The Cursers

“Those who conceal the clear (Signs) We have sent down, and the Guidance, after We have made it clear for the people in the Book,-on them shall be Allah´s curse, and the curse of those entitled to curse,” (Sura Al Baqara, verse 159)

The Unknown

1- “The Jews say: "Allah´s hand is tied up." Be their hands tied up and be they accursed for the (blasphemy) they utter. Nay, both His hands are widely outstretched: He giveth and spendeth (of His bounty) as He pleaseth. But the revelation that cometh to thee from Allah increaseth in most of them their obstinate rebellion and blasphemy. Amongst them we have placed enmity and hatred till the Day of Judgment. Every time they kindle the fire of war, Allah doth extinguish it; but they (ever) strive to do mischief on earth. And Allah loveth not those who do mischief.” (Sura Al Maida, verse 64)

2- “Such were the ´Ad People: they rejected the Signs of their Lord and Cherisher; disobeyed His messengers; And followed the command of every powerful, obstinate transgressor.  And they were pursued by a Curse in this life,- and on the Day of Judgment. Ah! Behold! for the ´Ad rejected their Lord and Cherisher! Ah! Behold! removed (from sight) were ´Ad the people of Hud!” (Sura Hud, verse 59 and 60)

3- “Unto Pharaoh and his chiefs: but they followed the command of Pharaoh and the command of Pharaoh was no right (guide). He will go before his people on the Day of Judgment, and lead them into the Fire (as cattle are led to water): But woeful indeed will be the place to which they are led! And they are followed by a curse in this (life) and on the Day of Judgment: and woeful is the gift which shall be given (unto them)!” (Sura Hud, verse 97 to 99)

4- “But those who break the Covenant of Allah, after having plighted their word thereto, and cut asunder those things which Allah has commanded to be joined, and work mischief in the land;- on them is the curse; for them is the terrible home!” (Sura Al Ra’d, verse 25)

5- “(Allah) said: “Then get thee out from here; for thou art rejected, accursed. “And the curse shall be on thee till the day of Judgment.” (Sura Al Hijr, verses 34 and 35)

6- “Behold! We told thee that thy Lord doth encompass mankind round about: We granted the vision which We showed thee, but as a trial for men,- as also the Cursed Tree (mentioned) in the Qur´an: We put terror (and warning) into them, but it only increases their inordinate transgression!” (Sura Al Isra, verse 60)

7- “Those who slander chaste women, indiscreet but believing, are cursed in this life and in the Hereafter: for them is a grievous Penalty,” (Sura Al Noor, verse 23)

8- “Truly, if the Hypocrites, and those in whose hearts is a disease, and those who stir up sedition in the City, desist not, We shall certainly stir thee up against them: Then will they not be able to stay in it as thy neighbours for any length of time: They shall have a curse on them: whenever they are found, they shall be seized and slain (without mercy).” (Sura Al Ahzab, verses 60 and 61)

9- “The Day when no profit will it be to Wrong-doers to present their excuses, but they will (only) have the Curse and the Home of Misery.” (Sura Al Qafir, verse 52)

Those Who Are Cursed in the Holy Quran

There are three groups which have been cursed in the Holy Quran. Here are the three:

The First Group: The titles which are especially used for pagans and those of other religions

The second group: the verses which are about hypocrites and especially well known hypocrites

The third group: verses about some Muslims who are not considered as hypocrite by Sunnis, including a number of companions.

First, we mention the whole three groups in a list:

The first group: 1- pagans and the blasphemous (in different forms) 2- Those of Christians who did Mubahila with the Holy Prophet (PBUH) 3- People of Sibt 4- Those of earlier religions who did not believe in what their prophets said and turned to paganism 5- Those who believed in the tyrant and brutal and believed that pagans were better than Muslims 6- Satan 7- Those with whom God got angry and were metamorphosed 8- The Jew who believed that God’s hands were tied! 9- The Tribe of Aad 10- Pharaoh, his army, and his commanders and agents such as Haman 11- The followers of Pharaoh 12- The hellish people and tribes 13- Bani Israel who broke their divine promise

The second group: 1- hypocrites 2- Those who are diseased hearted and spread rumors in Medina 3- Those who were suspicious to God in the Peace Treaty of Hudaibiya

The third group: 1- Those who annoy God and His Messenger 2- A man which tells a lie in Liaan (which was explained earlier) 3- A cursed tribe 4- Those who hide religious facts after they were sent down 5- oppressors 6- Those who break their promise and those who corrupt the Earth and those who do not meet their relatives, as God had ordered 7- The one who accuses chaste women of unchastity 8- The one who kills a Muslim on purpose 9- Some leaders of societies which will be punished in the Hell 10- Liars

Now we explain these verses in detail:

The First Group: The titles which are especially used for pagans and those of other religions

1- Pagans and the Blasphemous

1- “They say, "Our hearts are the wrappings (which preserve Allah´s Word: we need no more)." Nay, Allah´s curse is on them for their blasphemy: Little is it they believe.” (Sura Al Baqara, verse 88) 

2- “And when there comes to them a Book from Allah, confirming what is with them,- although from of old they had prayed for victory against those without Faith,- when there comes to them that which they (should) have recognized, they refuse to believe in it but the curse of Allah is on those without Faith.” (Sura Al Baqara, verse 89) 

3- “Those who reject Faith, and die rejecting,- on them is Allah´s curse, and the curse of angels, and of all mankind;” (Sura Al Baqara, verse 161)

4- “Of the Jews there are those who displace words from their (right) places, and say: "We hear and we disobey"; and "Hear what is not Heard"; and "Ra´ina"; with a twist of their tongues and a slander to Faith. If only they had said: "What hear and we obey"; and "Do hear"; and "Do look at us"; it would have been better for them, and more proper; but Allah hath cursed them for their Unbelief; and but few of them will believe.” (Sura Al Nisa, verse 46)

5- “Allah hath promised the Hypocrites men and women, and the rejecters, of Faith, the fire of Hell: Therein shall they dwell: Sufficient is it for them: for them is the curse of Allah, and an enduring punishment,” (Sura Tawba, verse 68)

6- “Verily Allah has cursed the Unbelievers and prepared for them a Blazing Fire,” (Sura Al Ahzab, verse 64)

7- “And that He may punish the Hypocrites, men and women, and the Polytheists men and women, who imagine an evil opinion of Allah. On them is a round of Evil: the Wrath of Allah is on them: He has cursed them and got Hell ready for them: and evil is it for a destination.” (Sura Al Fath, verse 6)

2- Those Christians who did Mubahila (cursing) with the Holy Prophet (PBUH)

“If any one disputes in this matter with thee, now after (full) knowledge Hath come to thee, say: "Come! let us gather together,- our sons and your sons, our women and your women, ourselves and yourselves: Then let us earnestly pray, and invoke the curse of Allah on those who lie!” (Sura Al Imran, verse 61)

3- People of Sibt

“O ye People of the Book! believe in what We have (now) revealed, confirming what was (already) with you, before We change the face and fame of some (of you) beyond all recognition, and turn them hindwards, or curse them as We cursed the Sabbath-breakers, for the decision of Allah Must be carried out” (Sura Al Nissa, verse 47)

4- Those of earlier religions who did not believe in what their prophets said and turned to paganism

1- “O ye People of the Book! believe in what We have (now) revealed, confirming what was (already) with you, before We change the face and fame of some (of you) beyond all recognition, and turn them hindwards, or curse them as We cursed the Sabbath-breakers, for the decision of Allah Must be carried out” (Sura Al Nissa, verse 47)

2- “Curses were pronounced on those among the Children of Israel who rejected Faith, by the tongue of David and of Jesus the son of Mary: because they disobeyed and persisted in excesses.” (Sura Al Maida, verse 78)

5- Those who believed in the tyrant and brutal and believed that pagans were better than Muslims

Hast thou not turned Thy vision to those who were given a portion of the Book? They believe in sorcery and Evil, and say to the Unbelievers that they are better guided in the (right) way Than the believers!  They are (men) whom Allah hath cursed: And those whom Allah Hath cursed, thou wilt find, have no one to help. (Sura Al Nissa, verses 51 and 52)

6- Satan

1- (The Pagans), leaving Him, call but upon female deities: They call but upon Satan the persistent rebel! Allah did curse him, but he said: "I will take of Thy servants a portion Marked off;” (Sura Al Nissa, verses 117 and 118)

2- “(Allah) said: "O Iblis! What is your reason for not being among those who prostrated themselves?" (Iblis) said: "I am not one to prostrate myself to man, whom Thou didst create from sounding clay, from mud moulded into shape." (Allah) said: “Then get thee out from here; for thou art rejected, accursed. “And the curse shall be on thee till the Day of Judgment.” (Sura Al Hijr, verses 32 to 35)

3- “(Allah) said: "O Iblis! What prevents thee from prostrating thyself to one whom I have created with my hands? Art thou haughty? Or art thou one of the high (and mighty) ones?"  (Iblis) said: "I am better than he: thou createdst me from fire, and him thou createdst from clay." (Allah) said: “Then get thee out from here: for thou art rejected, accursed. “And My curse shall be on thee till the Day of Judgment.” (Sura Saad, verses 75 and 78)

7- Those with whom God got angry and were metamorphosed

“Say: "Shall I point out to you something much worse than this, (as judged) by the treatment it received from Allah? those who incurred the curse of Allah and His wrath, those of whom some He transformed into apes and swine, those who worshipped evil;- these are (many times) worse in rank, and far more astray from the even path!” (Sura Al Maida, verse 60)

8- The Jew who believed that God’s hands were tied!

“The Jews say: "Allah’s hand is tied up." Be their hands tied up and be they accursed for the (blasphemy) they utter. Nay, both His hands are widely outstretched: He giveth and spendeth (of His bounty) as He pleaseth. But the revelation that cometh to thee from Allah increaseth in most of them their obstinate rebellion and blasphemy. Amongst them we have placed enmity and hatred till the Day of Judgment. Every time they kindle the fire of war, Allah doth extinguish it; but they (ever) strive to do mischief on earth. And Allah loveth not those who do mischief.” (Sura Al Maida, verse 64)

9- The Tribe of Aad

“Such were the ‘Ad People: they rejected the Signs of their Lord and Cherisher; disobeyed His messengers; And followed the command of every powerful, obstinate transgressor.  And they were pursued by a Curse in this life,- and on the Day of Judgment. Ah! Behold! for the ‘Ad rejected their Lord and Cherisher! Ah! Behold! removed (from sight) were ‘Ad the people of Hud!” (Sura Hud, verse 59 and 60)

10- Pharaoh, his army, and his commanders and agents such as Haman

“Pharaoh said: "O Chiefs! no god do I know for you but myself: therefore, O Haman! light me a (kiln to bake bricks) out of clay, and build me a lofty palace, that I may mount up to the god of Moses: but as far as I am concerned, I think (Moses) is a liar!” And he was arrogant and insolent in the land, beyond reason,- He and his hosts: they thought that they would not have to return to Us! So We seized him and his hosts, and We flung them into the sea: Now behold what was the end of those who did wrong! And we made them (but) leaders inviting to the Fire; and on the Day of Judgment no help shall they find. in this world We made a curse to follow them and on the Day of Judgment they will be among the loathed (and despised).” (Sura Al Qasas, verses 38 to 42)

11- The followers of Pharaoh

 “Unto Pharaoh and his chiefs: but they followed the command of Pharaoh and the command of Pharaoh was no right (guide). He will go before his people on the Day of Judgment, and lead them into the Fire (as cattle are led to water): But woeful indeed will be the place to which they are led! And they are followed by a curse in this (life) and on the Day of Judgment: and woeful is the gift which shall be given (unto them)!” (Sura Hud, verse 97 to 99)

12- The hellish people and tribes

1- “He will say: "Enter ye in the company of the peoples who passed away before you - men and jinns, - into the Fire." Every time a new people enters, it curses its sister-people (that went before), until they follow each other, all into the Fire. Saith the last about the first: "Our Lord! it is these that misled us: so give them a double penalty in the Fire." He will say: "Doubled for all" : but this ye do not understand.” (Sura Al A’raaf, verse 38)

2- “And he said: “For you, ye have taken (for worship) idols besides Allah, out of mutual love and regard between yourselves in this life; but on the Day of Judgment ye shall disown each other and curse each other: and your abode will be the Fire, and ye shall have none to help.” (Sura Al Ankaboot, verse 25)

13- Bani Israel who broke their divine promise

“Allah did aforetime take a covenant from the Children of Israel, and we appointed twelve captains among them. And Allah said: "I am with you: if ye (but) establish regular prayers, practise regular charity, believe in my messengers, honour and assist them, and loan to Allah a beautiful loan, verily I will wipe out from you your evils, and admit you to gardens with rivers flowing beneath; but if any of you, after this, resisteth faith, he hath truly wandered from the path or rectitude." But because of their breach of their covenant, We cursed them, and made their hearts grow hard; they change the words from their (right) places and forget a good part of the message that was sent them, nor wilt thou cease to find them- barring a few - ever bent on (new) deceits: but forgive them, and overlook (their misdeeds): for Allah loveth those who are kind.” (Sura Al Ma’ida, verses 12 and 13)

The Second Group: About Hypocrite Muslims

1- Hypocrites

1- “Allah hath promised the Hypocrites men and women, and the rejecters, of Faith, the fire of Hell: Therein shall they dwell: Sufficient is it for them: for them is the curse of Allah, and an enduring punishment,” (Sura Al Tawba, verse 68)

2- “Truly, if the Hypocrites, and those in whose hearts is a disease, and those who stir up sedition in the City, desist not, We shall certainly stir thee up against them: Then will they not be able to stay in it as thy neighbours for any length of time: They shall have a curse on them: whenever they are found, they shall be seized and slain (without mercy).” (Sura Al Ahzab, verses 60 and 61)

3- “And that He may punish the Hypocrites, men and women, and the Polytheists men and women, who imagine an evil opinion of Allah. On them is a round of Evil: the Wrath of Allah is on them: He has cursed them and got Hell ready for them: and evil is it for a destination.” (Sura Al Fath, verse 6)

2- Those who are diseased hearted and spread rumors in Medina

“Truly, if the Hypocrites, and those in whose hearts is a disease, and those who stir up sedition in the City, desist not, We shall certainly stir thee up against them: Then will they not be able to stay in it as thy neighbours for any length of time: They shall have a curse on them: whenever they are found, they shall be seized and slain (without mercy).” (Sura Al Ahzab, verses 60 and 61)

About these people, there are different interpretations in Sunni books. One of interpretations is that “hypocrites”, “those in whose hearts is a disease”, and “those who spread rumors in the City” all refer to one special group of people. But another famous interpretation says that they are different people:

“Those in whose hearts is a disease” are people who did not strong and full faith and they did not suffer the difficulties. Ibne Munzar and some others have quoted Malik Ibne Dinar who said “I asked Akrama about this part of the verse. He replied ‘They are corrupted people’. I read the same thing from Ataa in interpretation of this verse. There is another interpretation in which it is written “There are some believers in whose hearts there is a love of adultery”. So by “hearts is a disease”, they means love for adultery!

- Roh al-Mahani fi Tafsir al-Quran al-Azim va al-sabh al-Masani , vol. 22 , p.90 , by Allamah Abi al-Fazl Shahab al-Din al-Sayed Mahmoud al-Alusi al-Baghdadi , ( died 1270 A.H. ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar Ahya al-Tras al-Arabi – Beirut .

The same interpretations could be seen in the following:

- Al-keshaf ana Haqaeq al-Tanzil va Ayun al-Aqavil fi vojoh al-Tahvil , vol. 3 , p. 570 , by Abu al-Qasim Mahmoud ibn Umar Zamakhshari al-kharazmi , ( died 538 A.H. ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar Ahya al-Tras al-Arabi – Beirut , research by Abdul Razzaq al-Mehdi .

- Tafsir by al-Bizavi , vol. 4 , p. 386 , by al-Bizavi , ( died 685 A.H. ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar al-Fekr – Beirut .

- Al-Taseil Leuloom al-Tanzil , vol. 3 , p. 144 , by Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Qernati al-kalbi , ( died 741 A.H ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar al-ketab al-Arabi – Lebanon – 1403 A.H. – 1983 A.D , al-Tabaha ; 4 .

According to this interpretation, this verse is among those which refer to non-hypocrite Muslims, which are mentioned in the third part. Otherwise, this verse refers to Muslim hypocrites, who are discussed in this part.

3- Those who were suspicious to God in the Peace Treaty of Hudaibiya

“And that He may punish the Hypocrites, men and women, and the Polytheists men and women, who imagine an evil opinion of Allah. On them is a round of Evil: the Wrath of Allah is on them: He has cursed them and got Hell ready for them: and evil is it for a destination.” (Sura Al Fath, verse 6)

In traditions of Sunnis, there are arguments over this matter. Of course, most of them believe that here the same people are meant, as later we read:

“Nay, ye thought that the Messenger and the Believers would never return to their families; this seemed pleasing in your hearts, and ye conceived an evil thought, for ye are a people lost (in wickedness).” (Sura Al Fath, verse 12)      

And thus they are introduces as hypocrites.

Qartabi writes in this regard:

Here, these people are those who thought that neither the Holy Prophet (PBUH) nor any of his companions would not return to Medina when they left for Hudaibiya. They thought that pagans would kill them all, as mentioned in this verse.

- Al-Jameh al-Ahkam al-Quran, ( Tafsir by al-Qurtabi), vol. 16, p. 265, by Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Ahmad Al-Ansari al-Qurtabi , Dar al-Nashr : Dar al-Shoab – Cairo .

Of course, the pronoun of this verse refers to the noun in the verse before it:

“The desert Arabs who lagged behind will say to thee: "We were engaged in (looking after) our flocks and herds, and our families: do thou then ask forgiveness for us." They say with their tongues what is not in their hearts. Say: "Who then has any power at all (to intervene) on your behalf with Allah, if His Will is to give you some loss or to give you some profit? But Allah is well acquainted with all that ye do.” (Sura Al Fath, verse 11)

The references of this verse, according to Sunni interpretations, are some tribes who used to live in near Medina.   

Qartabi writes in his interpretation:

According to Mujahid and Ibne Abbas, this verse refers to the Arabs in the tribes of Qafar, Mazina, Jahina, Ashja’, and Dil. These were the Arabs who were living near Medina and did not join the Holy Prophet (PBUH).

- Al-Jameh al-Ahkam al-Quran, ( Tafsir by al-Qurtabi), vol. 16, p. 268, by Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Ahmad Al-Ansari al-Qurtabi , Dar al-Nashr : Dar al-Shoab – Cairo .

Of course, these words have very unpleasant consequences for Sunnis. That is because it shows that many tribes around Medina were hypocrite.

The Third Group: Those Muslims which are not Hypocrite

Those who annoy God and His Messenger, A man which tells a lie in Liaan (which was explained earlier), A cursed tribe, Those who hide religious facts after they were sent down, oppressors, Those who break their promise and those who corrupt the Earth and those who do not meet their relatives, as God had ordered, The one who accuses chaste women of unchastity, The one who kills a Muslim on purpose, Some leaders of societies which will be punished in the Hell, Liars

1- Those who annoy God and His Messenger

“Those who annoy Allah and His Messenger - Allah has cursed them in this World and in the Hereafter, and has prepared for them a humiliating Punishment.” (Sura Al Ahzab, verse 57)

This tradition is general and includes all those who annoyed the Holy Prophet (PBUH). Ibne Kathir writes in interpretation of this verse:

Apparently, this verse is general. It includes all people who annoyed the Holy Prophet (PBUH) in any form. Anyone who bothers the Holy Prophet (PBUH), he has bothered Allah, that is like anyone follows the Holy Prophet (PBUH), he has followed Allah!

- Tafsir al-Quran al-Azim , ( Tafsir by Ibn Kasir ) , vol. 3 , p. 518 , by Ismail ibn Umar ibn Kasir al-Damascene Abu al-Fada , Dar al-Nashr : Dar al-Fekr – Beirut – 1401 A.H.

This is interesting that Sunnis have quoted traditions from the companions in which the Holy Prophet (PBUH) tells them “You annoyed me”. And the cause of this matter was their disrespect of Imam Ali (AS).

It is quoted from Amro Ibne Sha’s to whom the Holy Prophet (PBUH) said “You annoyed me!” I said “I do not like to annoy you!” The Holy Prophet (PBUH) replied “Anyone annoys Ali (AS), so he has annoyed me”.

- Al-Tarikh al-kabir , vol. 6 , p. 306 , No. 2482 , by Muhammad ibn Ismail ibn Ibrahim Abu Abdullah al-Bukhari al-Jafi , ( died 256 A.H ) , Dar al-Nashr ; Dar al-Fekr , research by al-Sayed Hashem al-Nadawi .

The same tradition is quoted by some other Sunni scholars such as Ahmad Ibne Hanbal in his Masnad:

- Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal , vol. 3 , p. 483 , No. 16002 , by Ahmad ibn Hanbal Abu Abdullah al-Shaibani , ( died 241 A.H. ) , Dar al-Nashr : institute of Qurtabah – Egypt .

- Al-ketab al-Musnaf fi al-Ahadith va al-Asar , (Musnaf Ibn Abi Shaibah), vol. 6 , p. 371 , No. 32108 , by Abu Bakr Abdullah ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Shaibah al-kufi , ( died 235 A.H ) , Dar al-Nashr : Maktabah al-Roshd – Riyadh – 1409 A.H. , al-Tabaha ; 1 , research by kamal Yusuf al-Hout .

Translation of Amro Ibne Shas

In different Sunni books, Amro Ibne Sha’s is introduced as a companion of the Holy Prophet (PBUH). They say that he was a companion in the Peace Traty of Hudaibiya.

Amro Ibne Sha’s Aslami was a companion in the Peace treaty of Hudaibiya

- Mahrafah al-Sahabah , vol. 4 , p. 1996 , No. 5013 , author name : by Abi Nahim al-Asbahani , ( died 430 A.H. )

The same matter is mentioned in the following sources:

- Asad al-Qabah , vol. 4 , p. 254 , No. 3945 , by Izz al-Din Ibn al-Asir Abi al-Hassan Ali ibn Muhammad al-Jazri , ( died 630 A.H. ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar Ahya al-Tras al-Arabi – Beirut / Lebanon – 1417 A.H. – 1996 A.D. , al-Tabaha ; 1 , research by Adel Ahmad al-Refaei .

- Al-Esabah fi Tamiiz al-sahabah , vol. 4 , p. 645 , No. 5870 , by Ahmad ibn Ali ibn Hajar Abulfazl al-Asghalani al-Shafei , ( died 852 A.H. ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar al-Jil – Beirut – 1412 A.H. – 1992 A.D. , al-Tabaha ; 1 , Ali Muhammad al-Bedjaoui .

It is clear that this companion has annoyed the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and this verse is about him, too.

2- A man which tells a lie in Liaan (which is explained earlier)

“And the fifth (oath) (should be) that they solemnly invoke the curse of Allah on themselves if they tell a lie.” (Sura Al Noor, verse 7)

Liaan is a religious issue and it is specified to Muslims. So, the curse of this verse absolutely refers to a Muslim. Sunnis write about this issue:

It is quoted from Ibne Abbas that Hilal Ibne Umayya accused his wife of adultery in presence of the Holy Prophet (PBUH). The Holy Prophet (PBUH) told him “You should bring witness or I will whip you”. He replied “You, Messenger of Allah; when someone sees a stranger lying in bed with his wife, he should look for witness?” The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said “Bring witness or I will whip you!” Hilal said “I swear to Allah that I am telling the truth and God will certainly send a verse to exonerate me”.

Gabriel descended and brought with his the verse (verses from Sura Al Noor). The Holy Prophet (PBUH) returned and sent word for Hilal’s wife. She came and Hilal repeated his claim.

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said “God knows that one of you is lying. Doesn’t like liar want to repent?”    

- Sahih Bukhari , vol. 4 , p. 1772 , No. 4470 , By Muhammad ibn Ismail Abu Abdullah al-Bukhari al-Jafi , ( died 256 A.H ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar Ibn kasir , al-Yamama – Beirut – 1407 A.H. – 1987 A.D. , al-Tabaha : 3 , research by Dr. Mustafa Dib al-Bagha .

He also says:

It is quoted from Sahl Ibne Sad that a man went to the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and said “If a man sees a man with his wife, will you kill him if he kills that man? What should he do?”

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) answered “What you should do is clear”. So they cursed each other and I was witness along side with the Holy Prophet (PBUH). Then they were separated from one another and it became a tradition that a cursing man divorces his wife.

- Al-Jameh al-Sahih al-Mukhtasar , by Muhammad ibn Ismail Abu Abdullah al-Bukhari al-Jafi , ( died 256 A.H. ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar Ibn kasir , al-Yamama – Beirut – 1407 A.H. – 1987 A.D. , al-Tabaha : 3 , research by Dr. Mustafa Dib al-Bagha .

As it is made clear in these traditions, the cursing man was a companion of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and so was his wife.

- Sahih al-Bukhari , vol. 4 , p. 1603 , No. 4156 , by Muhammad ibn Ismail Abu Abdullah al-Bukhari al-Jafi , ( died 256 A.H. ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar Ibn kasir , al-Yamama – Beirut – 1407 A.H. – 1987 A.D. , al-Tabaha : 3 , research by Dr. Mustafa Dib al-Bagha .

Then, this verse might refer to non-hypocrite Muslims, too.

3- A cursed tribe

 “Behold! We told thee that thy Lord doth encompass mankind round about: We granted the vision which We showed thee, but as a trial for men,- as also the Cursed Tree (mentioned) in the Qur´an: We put terror (and warning) into them, but it only increases their inordinate transgression!” (Sura Al Isra, verse 60)

What do we mean by a Cursed Tribe?

To explain about meaning of the cursed tribe, we only suffice to the word of Tabari, the famous Sunni interpreter:

God has a word in the Holy Quran about the Cursed Tribe, and there is no doubt that this Cursed Tribe is Bani Umayya and no one disagrees with this.

- Tarikh al-Tabari , vol. 5 , p. 622 .

And of course, Sunnis consider many members of this Cursed Tribe as companions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH). They have considered them as great religious leaders and commanders of their age!

If cursing a Muslim, except for famous hypocrites, is forbidden according to Sunnis, why then this famous Sunni interpreter and scholar believes that the Cursed Tribe refers to Bani Umayya and believes that it is agreed on among all Sunnis?

4- Those who hide religious facts after they were sent down.

“Those who conceal the clear (Signs) We have sent down, and the Guidance, after We have made it clear for the people in the Book,-on them shall be Allah´s curse, and the curse of those entitled to curse,” (Sura Al Baqara, verse 159)

Bukhari has a tradition in his Sahih which shows that Abu Harira feared that he might be among those who are mentioned in this verse:

It is quoted from Abu Harira who said “People say that Abu Harira quotes too many traditions … I swear to Allah if it was not because of two verses in the Holy Quran which read ‘Those who conceal the clear (Signs) We have sent down, and the Guidance, after We have made it clear for the people in the Book,-on them shall be Allah´s curse, and the curse of those entitled to curse’, I would not do it any further”.

- Sahih al-Bukhari , vol. 2 , p. 827 , No. 2223 , by Muhammad ibn Ismail Abu Abdullah al-Bukhari al-Jafi , ( died 256 A.H. ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar Ibn kasir , al-Yamama – Beirut – 1407 A.H. – 1987 A.D. , al-Tabaha : 3 , research by Dr. Mustafa Dib al-Bagha .

If this verse was about non Muslims or hypocrite Muslims who were famous among Sunnis, why then Abu Harira is feared about it?

5- Oppressors

In several verses of the Holy Quran oppressors have been cursed:

1- “But Allah guides not a people unjust. Of such the reward is that on them (rests) the curse of Allah, of His angels, and of all mankind;” (Sura Al Imran, verses 86 and 87)

2- “The Companions of the Garden will call out to the Companions of the Fire: "We have indeed found the promises of our Lord to us true: Have you also found Your Lord´s promises true?" They shall say, "Yes"; but a crier shall proclaim between them: "The curse of Allah is on the wrong-doers;” (Sura Al Araaf, verse 44)

3- “Who doth more wrong than those who invent a life against Allah? They will be turned back to the presence of their Lord, and the witnesses will say, "These are the ones who lied against their Lord! Behold! the Curse of Allah is on those who do wrong!” (Sura Hud, verse 18)

4- “The Day when no profit will it be to Wrong-doers to present their excuses, but they will (only) have the Curse and the Home of Misery.” (Sura Al Qafir, verse 52)

Oppressors in Quran

Several groups were introduced in the Holy Quran as oppressor. According to text of the Holy Quran, they first were believers:

A- Believers who chose pagans as their lord

“O ye who believe! take not for protectors your fathers and your brothers if they love infidelity above Faith: if any of you do so, they do wrong.” (Sura Al Tawba, verse 23)

Allah only forbids you, with regard to those who fight you for (your) Faith, and drive you out of your homes, and support (others) in driving you out, from turning to them (for friendship and protection). It is such as turn to them (in these circumstances), that do wrong. (Sura Al Mumtahina, verse 9)

B- Believers who call others names and mock others

Those believers who mock others or call them names:

O ye who believe! Let not some men among you laugh at others: It may be that the (latter) are better than the (former): Nor let some women laugh at others: It may be that the (latter are better than the (former): Nor defame nor be sarcastic to each other, nor call each other by (offensive) nicknames: Ill-seeming is a name connoting wickedness, (to be used of one) after he has believed: And those who do not desist are (indeed) doing wrong.

C- The one who passes God’s limitations and violates them

“So do not transgress them if any do transgress the limits ordained by Allah, such persons wrong (Themselves as well as others).” (Sura Al Baqara, verse 229)

And not violating limitations of God (which means assigned by God), according to traditions of Sunnis, means following God:

(Doing according to) limitations (which are assigned by) of God are following him.

-Al-Atqan fi Uloom al-Quran vol. 2 p. 306, By Jalal al-Din Abdul Rahman al-Suyuti , ( died 19 / 5 / 911 A.H. ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar al-Fekr – Lebanon – 1416 A.H – 1996 A.D , AL-Tabaha : 1 , research by Saiid al-Mandoub

Ibne Abbas says that acting according the limitations which are assigned by God is following Him. This tradition is from Ibne Abi Hatam who says “That is following Allah”. That is a necessity. That is because for following God, we should not violate what he has banned us from.

- Fatah al-Bary , Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari , vol. 6 , p. 4 , by Ahmad ibn Ali ibn Hajar Abulfazl al-Asghalani al-Shafei , ( died 852 A.H. ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar al-Mahrefah – Beirut , research by Moheb al-Din al-khatib .

So, anyone who does not follow God is oppressor and all oppressors are cursed by God, whether he was a companion or not. And also any of the companions had committed such a sin is cursed in this regard.

D- The one who judges according to anything but divine rules

“We ordained therein for them: "Life for life, eye for eye, nose or nose, ear for ear, tooth for tooth, and wounds equal for equal." But if any one remits the retaliation by way of charity, it is an act of atonement for himself. And if any fail to judge by (the light of) what Allah hath revealed, they are (No better than) wrong-doers.” (Sura Al Ma’ida, verse 45)

According to Sunni sources, the army of Imam Ali (AS) introduced the army of Muawiya as those who are acting and judging according to something which was not sent by God and they were oppressor.

Tabari writes in his Tarikh that Yazid Ibne Qais Arhabi, who is introduced as a companion by Ibne Hajar in Al Isba, vol.6, p 702, number 9414, says about Muawiya and his army:

A true Muslim is the one whose idea and religion is true. I swear to Allah, these people do not fight against us for reform or betterment of a religion that we had ruined or for a right that we had violated. They fight us for a worldly matter. They are looking for the throne and power. If, God forbids, they overcome, they will assign some arrogant and ignorant people such as Said, Walid, or Abdullah Ibne Amir as your masters and governors … You, servants of Allah! Fight these people who act and think according to something which is not sent from God …

- Tarikh al-Tabari , vol. 3 , p. 86 , author name : by Abi Jafar Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari , ( died 310 A.H ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Beirut .

Oppressors in traditions: Companions introduce companions as oppressor!

According to Sahih Bukhari, Abbas, uncle of the Holy Prophet (PBUH), introduces Imam Ali (AS) as oppressor!

The keeper came to Omar and said “Do you let Abbas and Ali in?” Omar allowed them to enter. Then Abbas said “You, Commander of Believers! You judge between me and this oppressor” and then they started to insult each other!

- Sahih al-Bukhari , vol. 6 , p. 2663 , No. 6875 , by Muhammad ibn Ismail Abu Abdullah al-Bukhari al-Jafi , ( died 256 A.H. ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar Ibn kasir , al-Yamama – Beirut – 1407 A.H. – 1987 A.D. , al-Tabaha : 3 , research by Dr. Mustafa Dib al-Bagha .

This tradition clearly shows that, according to evidences of Sunnis, one of companions may be oppressor and, according to the verse of the Holy Quran, the oppressor is cursed by Allah.

6- Those who break their promise and those who corrupt the Earth and those who do not meet their relatives, as God had ordered

1- But those who break the Covenant of Allah, after having plighted their word thereto, and cut asunder those things which Allah has commanded to be joined, and work mischief in the land;- on them is the curse; for them is the terrible home! (Sura Al Ra’d, verse 25) 

2- Then, is it to be expected of you, if ye were put in authority, that ye will do mischief in the land, and break your ties of kith and kin? Such are the men whom Allah has cursed for He has made them deaf and blinded their sight. (Sura Muhammad, verse 22 and 23)

As Sunni scholar admit, the one who stops his relationship with his kin, even if he is from people of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) (his followers) or those who are considered as leaders by Sunnis, is cursed.

Zahabi quoted a tradition from Ahmad Ibne Hanbal who referred to this verse as a permit of cursing Yazid Ibne Muawiya:

One day Salih, Ahmad Ibne Hanbal’s son, told his father “You, father! Some people introduce us as followers and lovers of Yazid”. He replied “My son, Can a person who believes in God and the Day of Judgment love Yazid?” Salih said “Then, why don’t you curse him?” Ahmad Ibne Hanbal said “How can we not curse someone who is cursed by Allah? God says in the Holy Quran ‘Then, is it to be expected of you, if ye were put in authority, that ye will do mischief in the land, and break your ties of kith and kin? Such are the men whom Allah has cursed for He has made them deaf and blinded their sight’. Is it a small corruption to attack Medina and arresting its residents and killing 700 people of Quraish and Ansar and 10000 ordinary people? It was so brutal that blood reached the holy tomb of the Holy Prophet (PBUH). Didn’t he attack the Ka’ba with catapult and destroy it and burn it?”

- Al-Muntaqi mena Menhaj al-Ehtedal fi Naqz kalam Ahl al-Rafaz va al-Ahtazal , vol. 1 , p. 289 , by Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Osman al-Zahabi , ( died 748 A.H ) , Dar al-Nashr : , research by Moheb al-Din al-khatib .

The similar versions of this tradition could be seen in the following:

- Menhaj al-Sunnah al-Nobovyah , vol. 4 , p. 565 , by Ahmad ibn Abdul Halim ibn Taymiyyah al-Harani Abu al-Abbas (died : 728 A.H) , Dar al-Nashr : institute of Qurtabah – 1406 A.H. , al-Tabaha ; 1 , research by Dr. Muhammad Reshad Salem .

- Al-Savaheq va al-Moharaqah Ali Ahl al-Rafaz va al-zalal va al-zadaqah , vol. 2 , p. 635 , by Abu al-Abbas Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Hajar al-Haithami , ( died 973 A.H. ) , Dar al-Nashr : institute of al-Resala – Lebanon – 1417 A.H. – 1997 A.D. , al-Tabaha ; 1 , research by Abdul Rahman ibn Abdullah al-Turkey – kamel Muhammad al-kharrat .

- Qaza al-Albab Sharh Manzumah al-Adab , vol. 1 , p. 95 , by Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Salem al-Safarini al-Hanbali , ( died 1188 A.H ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Beirut / Lebanon – 1423 A.H – 2002 A.D , al-Tabaha ; 2 , research by Muhammad Abdul Aziz al-khaledi .

7- The one who accuses chaste women of unchastity

“Those who slander chaste women, indiscreet but believing, are cursed in this life and in the Hereafter: for them is a grievous Penalty,” (Sura Al Noor, verse 23)

This verse, according to Sunni traditions, was sent down in the story of companions’ accusation to Aisha. Those who accused Aisha were some companions such as Hassasn Ibne Thabit, Musattah Ibne Aathe, and some others.

Bukhari quotes Aisha in his Sahih:

Umme Musattah fell down and said “Damn Musattah (who was her son and a companions who fought in the war of Badr)!” I told her “Why do you say such a word? Do you insult someone who fought in the war of Badr?” She responded “What a disaster! Haven’t you heard what he has said?” I said “What has he said?” In response, she said what people of Afak were saying (and accused Aisha of adultery).

- Sahih al-Bukhari , vol. 4 , p. 1519 , No. 3910 , by Muhammad ibn Ismail Abu Abdullah al-Bukhari al-Jafi , ( died 256 A.H. ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar Ibn kasir , al-Yamama – Beirut – 1407 A.H. – 1987 A.D. , al-Tabaha : 3 , research by Dr. Mustafa Dib al-Bagha .

Then, this curse, too, refers to some Muslims and companions.

8- The one who kills a Muslim on purpose

“If a man kills a believer intentionally, his recompense is Hell, to abide therein (For ever): And the wrath and the curse of Allah are upon him, and a dreadful penalty is prepared for him.” (Sura Al Nissa, verse 93)

According to Sunni traditions, this verse is among the last verses which were sent down and it was sent because a Muslim killed another Muslim and fled and so he was excommunicated.

It is quoted from Said Ibne Jubair that the verse “If a man kills a believer intentionally …” was sent about Muqis Ibne Zubaba Al Kinani. He became Muslim like his brother and was living in Medina with his brother. One day Muqis found his brother’s dead body among Ansar Bani Al Najjar. He went to the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and informed him. He sent someone from Bani Fahr from Quraish with Muqis to Bani Al Najjar and asked them to introduce the murderer of his brother. And if they do not know the killer, they pay ransom. They said “We swear to Allah, we do not know who the killer is, but we will pay his ransom”. And they gave one hundred camels to Muqis in return of his brother’s blood.

When Muqis and Fahri, who was the prophet’s representative, were returning, Muqis attacked him and killed him. Then he was wxcommunicated.

- Tafsir Ibn Abi Hatam , vol. 3 , p. 1307 , by Abdul Rahman ibn Muhammad ibn Idris al-Razi , ( died 327 A.H ) , Dar al-Nashr : al-Maktabah al-Asryah – Sidon , research by Asas Muhammad al-Tayyeb .

Also, from other Sunni traditions we can understand that this rule is for Muslims and not pagans. That is because they say if a pagan becomes Muslim, the rule of killing a Muslim is taken from him, but if a Muslim kills another Muslim intentionally, his repentance will not be accepted.

It is quoted from Said Ibne Jubair who said “Abdul Rahman Ibne Abzi ordered me to ask Ibne Abbas about some verses including ‘Those who slander chaste women, indiscreet but believing, are cursed in this life and in the Hereafter: for them is a grievous Penalty’. I asked Ibne Abbas. He replied “When the verse of Sura Al Furqan was sent, blasphemers of Mecca said “We have killed innocents and worshipped idols and committed sins”. Then another verse was sent to show that it was about that group. But the verse which is in Sura Al Nissa shows that when a person learned about Islam and its rules, if he killed someone, his punishment is the hell”.

- Sahih al-Bukhari , vol. 3 , p. 1399 , No. 3642 , by Muhammad ibn Ismail Abu Abdullah al-Bukhari al-Jafi , ( died 256 A.H. ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar Ibn kasir , al-Yamama – Beirut – 1407 A.H. – 1987 A.D. , al-Tabaha : 3 , research by Dr. Mustafa Dib al-Bagha .

So, this verse is specified to Muslims.

9- Some leaders of societies which will be punished in the Hell

“And they would say: "Our Lord! We obeyed our chiefs and our great ones, and they misled us as to the (right) Path. “Our Lord! Give them double Penalty and curse them with a very great Curse!” (Sura Al Ahzab, verses 67 and 68)

According to Sunni traditions, companions believed that this verse matches some leaders of Muslims and companions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH). For instance, Muhammad Ibne Abibakr matched this verse to Othman:

Muhammad Ibne Abibakr entered Othman’s house and thought that Othman is dead. When he found him sitting, he said “Why are standing around him?” Then he took Othman by his beard and dragged him out of his house and said “You changed book of Allah, you Na’thal!” Othman said “I am not Na’thal! I am commander of believers! Even your father did not take me by beard”. Muhammad said “It will not be accepted from us on the Day of Judgment to say “Our Lord! We obeyed our chiefs and our great ones, and they misled us as to the (right) Path.” (Sura Al Ahzab, verse 67)”

- The history of holy Medina ( akhbar al-Medina) vol. 2 , p. 291 , by Abu zeid Umar ibn shebha al-Nimiri al-Basri , ( died 262 A.H ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Beirut – 1417A.H. – 1996 A.D , Research by Ali Muhammad Dandel va Yasin Saad al-Din Bayan .

- The history of the city of Damascus and zekr Fazloha va Tasmih mea Halaha mena al-Amasel , vol. 39 , p. 403 , by Abi al-Qasim Ali ibn al-Hassan Ibn Hobullah ibn Abdullah al-Shafei , ( died 571 A.H. ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar al-Fekr – Beirut – 1995 A.H. , Research : Moheb al-Din Abi Saeid Umar ibn Gharamah al-Amri .

- Al-Badayah va al-Nahayah , vol. 7 , p. 185 , by Ismail ibn Umar ibn Kasir al-Qurashi Abu al-Fada , ( died 774 A.H ) , Dar al-Nashr : Maktabah al-Maharef – Beirut .

Also Jabala Ibne Amro Ansari, a leader of those who attacked Othman and a companion, said:

Some people spoke to Jabala and asked him not to pick on Othmna. He replied “I swear to Allah, I do not think God accepts me (on the day of Resurrection) to say ‘Our Lord! We obeyed our chiefs and our great ones, and they misled us as to the (right) Path.’”

- Ansab al-Ashraf , vol. 2 , p. 274 , by Ahmad ibn Yahya ibn Jaber al-Buladhiri , ( died 279 A.H. ) , Died : 279 A.H.

The same words are quoted from Hajjaj Ibne Udai Ansari:

When Hajjaj Ibne Udai delivered Imam Ali’s letter to Muawiya, Muawiya said “You, Hajjaj! Was that you who had some adventures with Zeid Ibne Thabit on the day of attacking Othman’s house?” He replied “Yes! If you are informed about that, well that is OK. If not, I will let you know”. Muawiya asked him to say what happened. Hajjaj said “Zeid Ibne Othman was in Othman’s house. He took up at us and said ‘You, Ansar! Help God’ twice”. I replied “You, Zied! We do not like to see God on the Day of Judgment and tell ‘Our Lord! We obeyed our chiefs and our great ones, and they misled us as to the (right) Path’”.

- Al-Imama va al-Syasah , vol. 1 , p. 72 , by Abu Muhammad Abdullah ibn Moslim ibn Qutaibah al-Dinouri , ( died 276 A.H. ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Beirut – 1418 A.H. – 1997 A.D , Research : khalil al-Mansour.

Of course, the same story is mentioned in the following sources without mentioning its time:

- The history of holy Medina ( akhbar al-Medina) vol. 2 , p. 280 , No. 2278 , Abu zeid Umar ibn shebha al-Nimiri al-Basri , ( died 262 A.H ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Beirut – 1417A.H. – 1996 A.D , Research by Ali Muhammad Dandel va Yasin Saad al-Din Bayan .

- Al-Mahjam al-kabir , vol. 3 , p. 223 , by Suleiman ibn Ahmad ibn Ayoub Abu Al-Qasim al-Tabarani , ( died 360 A.H. ) , Dar al-Nashr : Maktabah al-Zahra – Mosel – 1404 A.H. – 1983 , Al-Tabaha ; 2 , research by Hamdi ibn Abdul Majid al-Salafi .

- Mahrafah al-Sahabah , vol. 2 , p. 727 , No. 507 , author name : by Abi Nahim al-Asbahani , ( died 430 A.H. )

10- Liars

“If any one disputes in this matter with thee, now after (full) knowledge Hath come to thee, say: "Come! let us gather together,- our sons and your sons, our women and your women, ourselves and yourselves: Then let us earnestly pray, and invoke the curse of Allah on those who lie!” (Sura Al Imran, verse 61)              

In several Sunni interpretations, under this verse is written:

We do “Mubahila”, that means we say “may God curse the liars”, whether it is us or you.

So, liar is cursed whether he is Muslim or non-Muslim.

- Al-keshaf ana Haqaeq al-Tanzil va Ayun al-Aqavil fi vojoh al-Tahvil , vol. 1 , p. 395 , by Abu al-Qasim Mahmoud ibn Umar Zamakhshari al-kharazmi , ( died 538 A.H. ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar Ahya al-Tras al-Arabi – Beirut , research by Abdul Razzaq al-Mehdi .

- Tafsir by al-Nasafi , vol. 1 , p. 157 , author name : al-Nasafi , (died 710 A.H. )

- Nahayah al-Arb fi Fonon al-Adab , vol. 18 , p. 88 , author name : Shahab al-Din Ahmad ibn Abdul Wahab al-Noueiri , ( died 733 A.H. ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Beirut / Lebanon – 1424 A.H – 2004 A.D , AL-Tabaha ; 1 , research by Mofid Qamhyah va Jamaha .

- Ketab Al-Taseil Leuloom al-Tanzil , vol. 1 , p. 109 , by Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Qernati al-kalbi , ( died 741 A.H ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar al-ketab al-Arabi – Lebanon – 1403 A.H. – 1983 A.D , al-Tabaha ; 4 .

 - Al-Lebab fi Uloom al-ketab , vol. 5 , p. 287 , by Abu Hafs Umar ibn Ali ibn Adel al-Damascene al-Hanbali , ( died : after 880 A.H. ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Beirut / Lebanon – 1419 A.H. – 1998 A.D. , al-Tabaha : 1 , research by al-shaykh Adel Ahmad Abdul Mojod and al-Sheikh Ali Muhammad Mouawaz .

Cursing in Tradition of the Holy Prophet (PBUH):

There are contradictory words in different Sunni books about insulting and cursing. Muhammad Said Zaqlul in his book, Mawsua Atraf Al Hadith Al Nabawi, mentions about 300 occasions in which the Holy Prophet (PBUH) cursed in his speaking!

- Mosoha Atraf al-Hadith al-Nabavi , vol. 6 , p. 594 , «Article cursed» .

More surprising is that in many of occasions, the Holy Prophet (PBUH) had insulted some Muslims and his own companions, which are claimed to be believers by the Sunni scholars, which will be pointed to in the coming parts.

This act of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) is interpreted by some as insulting. Muslim writes in his Sahih “Those who are cursed by the Holy Prophet (PBUH) or insulted or damned with him”.

- Sahih Moslim , vol. 4 , p. 2007 , Book al-Ber va al-sah va al-Adab ; by Moslim ibn al-Hajjaj Abu al-Hussein al-Qushairi al-Neishaburi , ( died 261 A.H. ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar Ahya al-Tras al-Arabi – Beirut , research by Muhammad Fouad Abdul Baqi .

On the other side, they say that cursing them is a great sin and sometimes they assign the penalty of death for such act!!!

Bukhari quotes the Holy Prophet (PBUH) in his Sahih who said “Cursing a believer is like killing him!”

- Sahih al-Bukhari , vol. 5 , p. 2264 , No. 5754 , Book al-Adab باب من أکفر أخاه بغير تأويل فهو کما قال

An explanation about insulting in the Holy Prophet’s word

If it is claimed that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) had insulted and used vulgar words, we absolutely reject that hadith. It is not acceptable to say that the Holy Prophet (PBUH), who was known as the one with “the best of behavior” uses vulgar words and insults others.

Qartabi writes in interpretation of the verse “You have the best of tempers”:

In fact, the word “temper” refers to set of acts that people force themselves to behave in that manner. 

It is quoted from Aisha who was asked about the prophet’s behavior. Then he read some verse of the Holy Quran beginning with “Truly believers …” and the next ten verses. Then she said “No one was as good-tempered as the Holy Prophet (PBUH). That is why God said ‘You have the best of tempers’. There is no good behavior unless the Holy Prophet (PBUH) has the most part of that. It is quoted from the Holy Prophet (PBUH) who said ‘God bred me in the best possible way and told me to be merciful and kind in giving orders and avoid the ignorant. When I accepted this divine order, he told me ‘You have the best of the behavior’”.

  - Al-Jameh al-Ahkam al-Quran, ( Tafsir by al-Qurtabi), vol. 18, p. 227, by Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Ahmad Al-Ansari al-Qurtabi , Dar al-Nashr : Dar al-Shoab – Cairo .

Can we accept that such a person who has the best behavior insults others and uses vulgar words?

So, the curse which is used by the Holy Prophet (PBUH) cannot be an insult and by that word, he meant cursing him or asking God to stop His mercy from that person, which of course is a curse, itself.

If we want to collect all the speeches of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) in which he had insulted some people or tribes, it takes a very long time since there are several instances. So we here present some examples of such curses which were uttered by the Holy Prophet (PBUH).

Different Types of Curse in the Words of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)

We can see three different kinds of curse in the words of the Holy Prophet (PBUH):

1- Cursing some people with specific characteristics in the Prophet’s word

2- Cursing special tribes by the Holy Prophet (PBUH)

3- Direct curse of some people by the Holy Prophet (PBUH)

1- Curse of Some People with Specific Characteristics in the Prophet’s Word According to True Sunni Traditions

As it was mentioned earlier, the Holy Prophet (PBUH) cursed some people in general. It means anyone who has such qualities is cursed by the Holy Prophet (PBUH). Of course, the references of the traditions are reliable according to Sunni scholars. Of course, in many cases, these hadiths and their references are not reliable according to Shiite thought. First we present a list of them and then speak about them separately.

1- 4- A woman who attaches hair of others, the one who gets the hair, a woman who tattoos and the one who gets tattooed, 5 -8- A woman who shaves others, a woman who gets shaved, a woman who put a gap between her teeth, anyone who changes creation of Allah, 9- 12- Receiver Riba (interest), one who pays, its witness, and its dealer, 13- The one who bought fat tail of sheep from the Jew, 14- 23- wine, the one who makes the juice of grape, the one who boils that, the one who drinks it, the one who carries that, the one to whom wine is being taken, its seller, its buyer, the tapster, and the one in whose bowl wine is poured, 24- The Jews who built a shrine over their prophets’ tombs, 25- The Women who go to the grave yards, 26- A Thief, 27- 28- The men who behave like women and the women who behaved like men, 29- 32- Anyone who causes disaster in Medina and anyone who harbors that person, someone who takes a master without permission of his true master, and someone who violates the right of being protected of a Muslim, 33- 34- Briber and the one who receives bribe, 35- 40- The one who adds something to divine books, the one who rejects divine fate, the one who governs people by force so that he respects someone who is disrespected by God or disrespects someone who is respected by God, the one who allows something which is forbidden by God (and the one who allows bloodshed in Masjid Al Haraam), and someone who acts my family (Ahle Bait) in a way which is forbidden by God (and bothers them), and someone who abandons my tradition, 41- 42- someone who collects charities and the one who returns to the tradition of the ignorant Arabs after Hijrat of the Holy Prophet (PBUH), 43- 44- the men who dressed like women and the women who dressed like men, 45- 46- The men who looked feminine and the women who looked masculine, 47- The women who are covered while they are naked, 48- 50- Someone who collects charities (of other people), Muhallil, Muhallil Lah, 51- The one who mates his wife anally, 52- 54- A woman who harms her face, the one who rips her clothes, and the one who cries loudly in a catastrophe, 55- 60- The person who changed the borders on the land, those who shed blood for anyone except God, those who curse their parents, the person who takes a master other than his real master, the one who misleads a blind, the one who mates with an animal, the one who imitates the tribe of Lut, 61- Someone who harbors a criminal (or heretic), 62- The one who violates such an agreement and the person who harbors him, 63- Illustrators, 64- The woman who ignores mating with her husband, 65- Anyone who threatens others (with a sword or anything else)

66- The world is cursed along with anything in it except for remembrance of Allah, a scientist, and people who seek knowledge, 67- 68- a person who cauterized an animal in its face or bits its face, 69- 70- the one who introduces himself son of someone except his father, and the man who offers his service to someone but his real master, 71- 72- the person who spends the money which is achieved from selling wine … and the person for whom wine is bought, 73- 75- The ruler from Quraish who is not just, is stingy, and does not keep his word, 76- The person who targets and shoots at a living animal.

1- 4- A woman who attaches hair of others, the one who gets the hair, a woman who tattoos and the one who gets tattooed

In a tradition from the Holy Prophet (PBUH) in Sahih Al Bukhari, he asked God to curse four groups of people:

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said “May God curse a woman who attaches hair of a woman on another woman’s head and so does he curse the woman who gets the hair. Also a woman tattoos and the one who is being tattooed.

- Sahih al-Bukhari , vol. 5 , p. 2216 , No. 5589 , Book al-Lebas , bab al-vasl fi al-Shehr .

In another tradition from the Holy Prophet (PBUH) in Sahih Bukhari, it is said that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) cursed these people, himself. What we get from comparing these two traditions is that when a person asks God to curse someone, it is like he, himself, has cursed the other person.

- Sahih al-Bukhari , vol. 5 , p. 2217 , No. 5592 , Book al-Lebas .

5 -8- A woman who shaves others, a woman who gets shaved, a woman who put a gap between her teeth, anyone who changes creation of Allah 

It is quoted from Abdullah Ibne Masoud who said “God curses a woman who tattoos others and a woman who gets tattoo on her body. Also He curses a woman who shaves other women and a woman who lets her body shaved. God will also curse a woman who reforms her teeth for beauty (and puts a gap between the front ones) and God curses those who try to make a change in the creation”.

A woman from Bani Asad Tribe heard this. She was a woman who used to read Quran. She went to Abdullah Ibne Masoud and said “I heard that you have cursed such women”. He replied “Why shouldn’t I curse someone who the Holy Prophet (PBUH) has cursed? We are told to do so in the Holy Quran”. The woman asked “Where in the Holy Quran such a matter is mentioned (that we should curse someone who is cursed by the Holy Prophet (PBUH)), while I have read the Holy Quran completely?” He replied “You have seen and read that. God has said ‘Do whatever the Holy Prophet (PBUH) brought for you and abstain from whatever he banned you from’”.      

- Sahih Moslim , vol.3 , p. 1678 , No. 2125 , Book al-Lebas va al-zinah , chapter : تحريم فعل الواصلة والمستوصلة والواشمة والمستوشمة والنامصة والمتنمصة والمتفلجات والمغيرات خلق الله-  , - Sahih al-Bukhari , vol. 4 , p. 1853 , No. 4604 , Book al-Tafsir chapter : وما آتاكم الرسول فخذوه , and vol. 5 , p. 2218 , No. 5595 and p. 2219 , No. 5599 , book al-Lebas , chapter : المتنمصات .

A note about this tradition:

In this tradition, the curse is not issued directly from the Holy Prophet’s mouth. It is what Abdullah Ibne Masoud pointed out that he cursed these people to follow the Holy Prophet (PBUH) (and he claims that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) cursed these people).

9- 12- Receiver Riba (interest), one who pays, its witness, and its dealer

It is quoted from Jabir who said that “the Holy Prophet (PBUH) cursed receiver of Riba (interest), the person who pays that, the person who witnesses such a contract, and the person who matches them and is dealer”.

- Sahih Moslim , vol. 3 , p. 1219 , No. 1598 , Book al-Mosaqat chapter :لعن آکل الربا وموکله

13- The one who bought fat tail of sheep from the Jew

It is quoted from Ibne Abbas that Omar was informed that Samara (one of companions) sole wine!!! Then he said “God kills him! Did he hear the Holy Prophet (PBUH) saying that ‘May God curse the Jew. Fat tail of sheep was forbidden to them and they ignore it and sold it?’”

- Sahih Moslim , vol. 3 , p. 1207 , No. 1582 , Book al-Mosaqat  chapter : تحريم بيع الخمر والميتة والخنزير والأصنام

14- 23- wine, the one who makes the juice of grape, the one who boils that, the one who drinks it, the one who carries that, the one to whom wine is being taken, its seller, its buyer, the tapster, and the one in whose bowl wine is poured

It is quoted from Ibne Abbas who quoted the Holy Prophet (PBUH) who said “Gabriel came to me and said ‘You, Muhammad! God has cursed wine, the one who makes the juice of grape, the one who boils that, the one who drinks it, the one who carries that, the one to whom wine is being taken, its seller, its buyer, the tapster, and the one in whose bowl wine is poured’”.

This tradition is also quoted by Ahmad Hanbal and Tabarani and all its narrators are reliable.

- Majmah al-Zavaed , vol. 5 , p. 73 , Book al-Atmaha – Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal , vol. 1 , p. 316 , No. 2899 , Musnad by Abdullah ibn Abbas Shabih It is narrated in the following documents: Sunnan ibn Majah , vol. 2 , p. 1121 , No. 3380 and 3381 chapter : لعنت الخمر على عشرة أوجه

24- The Jews who built a shrine over their prophets’ tombs

It is quoted from Aisha who quoted the Holy Prophet (PBUH) while he was in bed due to the disease that led to his death who said “May God curse the Jews who built a bowing place (shrine) over their prophets’ tombs”.

-Sahih al-Bukhari , vol. 4 , p. 1614 , No. 4177 , book al-Maghazi , chapter The disease of the holy Prophet (PBUH) and his death and ... Sunnan al-Tirmidhi , vol. 3 , p. 589 , No. 1294 , book al-Bayoh chapter :  النهي أن يتخذ الخمر خلا

25- The Women who go to the grave yards

Abu Harira quoted the Holy Prophet (PBUH) who said “May God curse the women who visit a tomb …”

Termezi says that this tradition is reliable and its references are true. Some scholars believe that this tradition dates back to the period before the time when the Holy Prophet (PBUH) let people go to the grave yards and visit tombs of their dead. That permission included both men and women.

- Sunnan al-Tirmidhi , vol. 3 , p. 371 , No. 1056 , book al-Janaez chapter : ما جاء في كراهية زيارة القبور للنساء ( Albani has been mentioned the narration in Sahih al-Tarhib va al-Tarqib No. 3545 and it is regarded a sound tradition )

26- A Thief

Abu Harira quoted the Holy Prophet (PBUH) who said “God curses the thieves. He rubs armor and he gets his hand cut and he, also, rubs a piece of rope and again he gets his hand cut”.

- Sahih al-Bukhari , vol. 6 , p. 2489 , No. 6401 , Book al-Hodod chapter لعن السارق اذا لم يسمّ

 

27- 28- The men who behave like women and the women who behaved like men

It is quoted from Ibne Abbas who said “The Holy Prophet (PBUH) cursed the men who behave like women and the women who behaved like men”.

- Sahih al-Bukhari , vol. 6 , p. 2508 , No. 6445 , book al-Maharebin chapter نفي أهل المعاصي والمخنثين .

It is quoted from Ibne Abbas who said that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) cursed the men who behaved womanish and the women who appeared in the public (without hijab).

- Sunnan al-Nisaei al-kubra , vol. 5 , p. 369 , No. 9251 , book Ashrah al-Nisa chapter of :لعن المتبرجات من النساء

29- 32- Anyone who causes disaster in Medina and anyone who harbors that person, someone who takes a master without permission of his true master, and someone who violates the right of being protected of a Muslim

Ali (AS) said “There is no book we read but the Holy Quran and this book … the borders of the city of Medina are set in it. So, the one who causes disaster in this city and anyone who harbors that person is cursed by God, angels, and people of Medina. On the Day of Judgment, his repentance and good deeds will not be accepted.

And may God, angels, and all people curse someone who takes a master without permission of his true master. On the Day of Judgment, his repentance and good deeds will not be accepted.

All Muslims are protected, even the youngest ones. So, if someone violates this right of a Muslim, God, his angels, and all people would curse that person and on the Day of Judgment, his repentance and good deeds will not be accepted.

- Sahih al-Bukhari , vol. 6 , p. 2482 , No. 6374 , book al-Faraez chaoter of إثم من تبرأ من مواليه .

33- 34- Briber and the one who receives bribe

It is quoted from Abdullah Ibne Amro who said “The Holy Prophet (PBUH) cursed the briber and the one who receives bribe”. Termezi approved this hadith to be true and reliable.

- Sunnan al-Tirmidhi , vol. 3 , p. 623 , No. 1336 and 1337 , book al-Ahkam chapter of ما جاء في الراشي والمرتشي في الحكم  - Sunnan ibn Majah , vol. 2 , p. 775 , No. 2313 , book al-Ahkam chapter : التغليظ في الحيف والرشوة – Sunnan Abi Dawoud , vol. 3 , p. 300 , No. 3580 , Book al-Aqzyah chapter : في كراهية الرشوة .

35- 40- The one who adds something to divine books, the one who rejects divine fate, the one who governs people by force so that he respects someone who is disrespected by God or disrespects someone who is respected by God, the one who allows something which is forbidden by God (and the one who allows bloodshed in Masjid Al Haraam), and someone who acts my family (Ahle Bait) in a way which is forbidden by God (and bothers them), and someone who abandons my tradition

Aisha quoted the Holy Prophet (PBUH) who said “There are six groups of people whom I cursed, as did God and the prophets before me. The one who adds something to divine books, the one who rejects divine fate, the one who governs people by force so that he respects someone who is disrespected by God or disrespects someone who is respected by God, the one who allows something which is forbidden by God (and the one who allows bloodshed in Masjid Al Haraam), and someone who acts my family (Ahle Bait) in a way which is forbidden by God (and bothers them), and someone who abandons my tradition”.

Termezi says “This traditions is narrated by Abdul Rahman from Aisha who quoted the Holy Prophet (PBUH). Also Sufyan quoted this tradition from Ali Ibne Al Hussein (Imam Sajjad (AS)) who quoted the Holy Prophet (PBUH), but the reference of our hadith is more accurate”.

- Sunnan al-Tirmidhi , vol. 4 , p. 457 , No. 2154 , Book al-Qadr – Sahih Ibn Hiban , vol. 13 , p. 60 , No. 5749 , chapter of cursed , ، ذكر لعن المصطفى مع سائر الأنبياء أقواما من أجل أعمال ارتكبوها – al-Mostadrak alal – Sahihain , vol. 1 , p. 91 , No. 102 , Book al-Iman and vol. 2 , p. 571 , No. 3940 , and p. 572 , No. 3941 chapter Tafsir sourah va al-Lail , vol. 4 , p. 101 , No. 7011 , book al-Ahkam , all narrations are sound .

41- 42- someone who collects charities and the one who returns to the tradition of the ignorant Arabs after Hijrat of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)

It is quoted from Abdullah who said “The one who receives Riba (interest), the one who pays that, the one who witnesses that, and also the woman who tattoos other women and the woman who gets tattooed and someone who collects charities (of other people) and the one who returns to the tradition of the ignorant Arabs after Hijrat of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) (and believing in what was believed before rise of Islam after he believed in it) will be cursed on the Day of judgment by the Holy Prophet (PBUH)”.

- Sunnan al-Nisaei , ( al-Mujtaba ) , vol. 8 , p. 147 , No. 5102 , Book al-Zinah , chapter الموتشمات  ( Albani has said that it is a sound narration : Sahih al-Tahliq al-Raqib , vol. 3 , p. 49 )

43- 44- the men who dressed like women and the women who dressed like men

It is quoted from Abu Harira that “The Holy Prophet (PBUH) cursed the men who dressed like women and the women who dressed like men”.

- Sunnan al-Nisaei al-kubra , vol. 5 , p. 397 , No. 9253 , Book Ashrah al-Nisa , chapter المتبرجات من النساء  - Sunnan Abi Dawoud , vol. 4 , p. 60 , No. 4098 , 4099 , book al-Lebas , chapter لباس النساء – al-Mostadrak alal – Sahihain , vol. 4 , p. 215 , No. 7415 , book al-Lebas ( Albani is considered to be this narration in Sahih al-Jameh al-saghir No. 5096 )

45- 46- The men who looked feminine and the women who looked masculine.

Ibne Abbas quoted the Holy Prophet (PBUH) who cursed the men who looked feminine and the women who looked masculine.

- Sahih al-Bukhari , vol. 5 , p. 2207 , No. 5546 , book al-Lebas , chapter المتشبهين بالنساء والمتشبهات بالرجال - Sunnan Abi Dawoud , vol. 4 , p. 60 , No. 4097 , book al-Lebas , chapter لباس النساء

47- The women who are covered while they are naked

I heard Abdullah Ibne Omar who said “The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said ‘On the Apocalypse, there are men who ride on horses, but they (only) look like men!!! They stay in mosques, but their wives are covered while they are naked. Their heads are thin like hump of camels of Khurasan. So, curse them because they are cursed’”.

-Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal , vol. 2 , p. 223 , No. 7083 , Musnad Abdullah ibn Umar – al-Mostadrak alal – Sahihain , vol. 4 , p. 483 , No. 8346 , book al-Fetn va al-Molahem   - Sahih Ibn Hiban , vol. 13 , p. 64 , No. 5753 ,   ذكر الاخبار عن وصف النسا اللاتي يستحققن اللعن بأفعالهن ء ( Albani is regarded a sound narration in Sahih and Zahif al-Jameh al-saghir No. 7274 )

48- 50- Someone who collects charities (of other people), Muhallil, Muhallil Lah

It is quoted from Ali (AS) who said “The Holy Prophet (PBUH) cursed the one who receives Riba (interest), the one who pays that, the one who witnesses that, and also the woman who tattoos other women and the woman who gets tattooed and someone who collects charities (of other people) and Muhill (if a man divorces his wife for three times, they cannot marry each other again. If they want to marry again, another man should marry her and divorces her, so that the first man can marry his ex-wife again. This man is called Muhillun Lah, and the second husband of the woman is called Muhallil or Muhill) and Muhallil Lah. He also proscribed dirge.

- Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal , vol. 1 , p. 107 , No. 844 , Musnad Ali ibn Abi Talib , p. 83 , No. 635 , p. 87 , No. 660 , p. 133 , No. 1120 , p. 150 , No. 1288 , p. 158 , No. 1364 , - Sunnan al-Nisaei , ( al-Mujtaba ) , vol. 8 , p. 147 , No. 5103 and 5104 , book al-Zinah , chapter  الموتشمات ( Albani is considered it as a sound narration in Sahih and Zahif Sunnan Nisaei )

51- The one who mates his wife anally

Abu Harira says that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) said “The one who mates his wife anally is cursed”.

- Sunnan Abi Dawoud , vol. 2 , p. 249 , No. 2162 , book al-Nekah , chapter في جامع النکاح (Albani has been mentioned this narration in the book called “al-Tarqib va al-Tarhib” No. 2432 and is considered sound.)

52- 54- A woman who harms her face, the one who rips her clothes, and the one who cries loudly in a catastrophe

It is quoted from Abu Amama that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) cursed a woman who harms her face, the one who rips her clothes, and the one who cries loudly in a catastrophe.

- Sunnan Ibn Majah , vol. 1 , p. 505 , No. 1585 , book al-Jenaez , chapter ما جاء في النهي عن ضرب الخدود وشق الجيوب   (Albany has been corrected this narration in Sahih Sunnan Ibn Majah No. 1289)

Some other traditions with almost the same content exist.

- Qarib al-Hadith by Ibn al-Jozi , vol. 2 , p. 446 – al-Nahayah fi Qarib al-Asar , vol. 5 , p. 136  - al-Mahkam va al-Mohit al-Ahzam by Ibn Sayada , vol. 4 , p. 189 .

55- 60- The person who changed the borders on the land, those who shed blood for anyone except God, those who curse their parents, the person who takes a master other than his real master, the one who misleads a blind, the one who mates with an animal, the one who imitates the tribe of Lut  

It is quoted from Ibne Abbas that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) said “God curses the person who changed the borders on the land. God curses those who shed blood for anyone except God. God curses those who curse their parents. God curses the person who takes a master other than his real master. God curses the one who misleads a blind. God curses the one who mates with an animal. God curses the one who imitates the tribe of Lut” and he repeated the last one three times.

- Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal , vol. 1 , p. 317 , No. 2915 ( Albani has been corrected this narration in Sahih al-Tarqib va al-Tarhib No. 2421)

61- Someone who harbors a criminal (or heretic)

Abu Al Latif says “I was sitting with Ali (AS). A person came across us and said ‘What secret did the Holy Prophet (PBUH) tell you?’ Imam Ali (AS) got angry and said ‘The Holy Prophet (PBUH) told me no secrets to hide from people. He only told me four sentences’. The man asked ‘What were those four sentences?’ He replied ‘God curses someone who curses his father. God curses someone who sheds blood for someone except for Allah. God curses someone who harbors a criminal (or heretic). And God curses the one who changes signs (borders) of the Earth’”.

- Sahih Moslim , vol. 3 , p. 1567 , No. 1987 , book al-Azahi , chapter تحريم الذبح لغير الله تعالى ولعن فاعله  

62- The one who violates such an agreement and the person who harbors him

It is quoted from Qais that “Ashtar and I went to Ali (AS). We told him ‘Did the Holy Prophet (PBUH) tell you anything that you did not tell anyone?’ He replied ‘No! Nothing but what is said in this book’. Then he dragged a book out (Ahmad says that he dragged a paper out of his sword’s sheath) on which it was written ‘The blood of all Muslims are of the same value. They are unified against all non-Muslims. The youngest Muslim can harbor a non-Muslim; beware that a believer should be killed in presence of a pagan. A safe-conducted person will not be killed during the treaty. The violator is responsible for his act. God, His angels, and all people may curse the one who violates such an agreement and the person who harbors him.         

- Sunnan Abi Dawoud , vol. 4 , p. 180 , No. 4530 , book al-Dyat , chapter أيقاد المسلم بالكافر (Albani is regarded this narration in Sahih Sunnan Abi Dawoud No. 4530)

63- Illustrators

It is quoted from Awn Ibne Abi Jahifa that his father bought a servant who did phlebotomy. Then he said “The Holy Prophet (PBUH) cursed receiver and payer of Riba (interest), a woman who tattoos and get tattooed, and also illustrators”.

- Sahih al-Bukhari , vol. 5 , p. 2223 , No. 5617 , book al-Lebas , chapter من لعن المصور

64- The woman who ignores mating with her husband

It is quoted from Abu Harira that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) said “If a man wants to mate with his wife, but the woman ignores and the man gets angry with her, the angels will curse her until the sun rises”.

- Sahih al-Bukhari , vol. 3 , p. 1182 , No. 3065 , book Bada al-khalq , chapter باب اذا قال احدکم آمين

65- Anyone who threatens others (with a sword or anything else)

I heard from Abu Harira who said “The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said ‘Anyone who threatens others (with a sword or anything else) will be cursed by the angels until the time he stops this act, even if it is because of his mother and father’”.

- Sahih Moslim , vol. 4 , p. 2020 , No. 2616 , book al-Ber va al-selah , chapter النَّهْيِ عن الْإِشَارَةِ بِالسِّلَاحِ إلى مُسْلِمٍ

 

66- The world is cursed along with anything in it except for remembrance of Allah, a scientist, and people who seek knowledge

Abu Harira said that “I heard it from the Holy Prophet (PBUH) who said ‘The world is cursed along with anything in it except for remembrance of Allah, a scientist, and people who seek knowledge’”.

- Sunnan Ibn Majah , vol. 2 , p. 1377 , No. 4111 ,book al-Fetn , chapter مثل الدنيا (Albani is considered it as a sound narration in al-Selselah al-Sahiha No. 2797)

67- 68- a person who cauterized an animal in its face or bits its face

Jabir quoted the Holy Prophet (PBUH) that he saw a donkey whose face was cauterized. Then he said “Weren’t you informed that I have cursed a person who cauterized an animal in its face or bits its face?” He banned this act.

- Sunnan Abi Dawoud , vol. 3 , p. 26 , No. 2564 , book al-Jahad , chapter بَاب النَّهْيِ عن الْوَسْمِ في الْوَجْهِ وَالضَّرْبِ في الْوَجْهِ  ( Albani is regarded it as a sound narration in al-Selselah al-Sahiha No. 1549 )

69- 70- the one who introduces himself son of someone except his father, and the man who offers his service to someone but his real master

Ali (AS) gave us a speech one day and said “It is a lie if a person says that a person thinks or says that we tell you anything out of the Holy Quran or this book”. That book was hung to his sheath. Then he said “In that it is written about teeth and wounds of a camel and in this book the Holy Prophet (PBUH) said ‘Medina is like a shrine and its borders are assigned. So God, His angels, and all people may curse a person who is heretic, the man who harbors a heretic, the one who introduces himself son of someone except his father, and the man who offers his service to someone but his real master. Also his repentance and good deeds will not be accepted on the Day of Judgment’”.

- Sahih Moslim , vol. 2 , p. 994 , No. 1370 , book al-Haj , chapter فضل المدينة

71- 72- the person who spends the money which is achieved from selling wine … and the person for whom wine is bought

Anas Ibne Malik says “The Holy Prophet (PBUH) cursed ten things about wine … and the person who spends the money which is achieved from selling wine … and the person for whom wine is bought”.

 - Sunnan al-Tirmidhi , vol. 3 , p. 589 , No. 1295 , book al-Bayoh , chapter النهي أن يتخذ الخمر خلا ( Albani has been said that narration is sound in Sahih va Zahif Sunnan Tirmidhi )

73- 75- The ruler from Quraish who is not just, is stingy, and does not keep his word

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said “Rulers will be form Quraish (and he repeated this sentence three times) until the times they do three things: They rule according to justice, they asked for generosity and they offer generously, and they say something and they keep their word. So, if they do not do so, God, His angels, and all people curse him”.

- Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal , vol. 4 , p. 421 , No. 19797 , Musnad Abi Barzeh al-Aslami ( Albani has been correct this narration in al-Selselah al-Sahiha No. 2858 )

76- The person who targets and shoots at a living animal

Ibne Omar was passing by some members of Quriash who were targeting a bird and were shooting at him and they would give the arrows which went wrong to the owner of the bird. When they saw Ibne Omar, they fled. Ibne Omar said “Who was doing so? God curses him since the Holy Prophet (PBUH) cursed the person who targets and shoots at a living animal”.

- Sahih Moslim , vol. 3 , p. 1550 , No. 1985 , book al-Seid va al-Zabaeh, chapter النهي عن صبر البهائم

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) Curses Some People of Special Characteristics (without Sahih reference)

There are several other examples in Sunni books that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) cursed someone, but they are not presented in the Sahihs. Many of them are offered by famous Sunni scholars and they have claimed that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) cursed those groups. Here is only a list of them that they have weak reference or they are presented in Sunni books:

من سأل بوجه الله 2- من سئل بوجه الله فمنع سائله 4- من قطع السدر 5- صوت المزمار عند النعمة 6- صوت الرنة عند المصيبة 7- ثالث ثلاثة رکبوا علي حمار واحد 8- الذين تخلفوا عن جيش أسامة 9- النائحة 10- المستمعة 11- الحالقة 12- السالقة (أو الصالقة) 13- الذي يجلس في وسط الحلقة 14- الرائش 15- القاشرة 16- المقشورة 17- ناکح اليد 18- المفعول به عمل قوم لوط 19- ناكح البهيمة 20- الجامع بين المرأة وابنتها 21- الزاني بحليلة جاره 22- المؤذي جاره حتى يلعنه 23- من أم قوما وهم له کارهون 24- رجل سمع حي على الصلاة (أو الفلاح) ولم يجب 25- من سلّ سخيمته علي طريق المسلمين 26- العاضهة 27- المستعضهة 28- المرأة تخرج من بيت زوجها بدون اذنه 29- من ولي أمة رسول الله فشقّ عليهم 30- من انتقص شيئا من حق رسول الله (ص) 31- من أبي عترة رسول الله 32- من آذانا في سبلنا 33- جاران أذبلا 34- الماشون اختيالا 35- الناطقون أشعارا بالخني 36- الشابون (أو الشاربون) فضالا 37- المعقوس نعالا 38- الشطرنج 39- من لعب بالشطرنج 40- الشيخ الزاني 41- المتبتلين (ممکن است با من تحصر يکي باشد) 42- المتبتلات 43- راکب الفلاة وحده 44- البائت وحده 45- مضلّ المساکين 46- من قال للمکفوف اتق البئر وليس بين يديه شيء 47- الرجل يسأل عن دار القوم فيدلونه علي غيرها 48- الرجل يضرب والديه حتي يستغيثا 49- من غير حدود الله 50- من ضار مؤمنا 51- من مکر بمؤمن 52- المحتکر 53- کاتم العلم 54- المتخذين علي القبور المساجد 55- المتخذين علي القبور السرج 56- من فرق بين الوالدة وولدها 57- من فرق بين الأخ وأخيه 58- العالم الذي لا يظهر علمه اذا ظهرت البدع وسب أصحاب رسول الله (ص) 59- الموسي وحاملها 60- من قبّل غلاما بشهوة 61- السلتاء 62- المرهاء 63- المتغوط في ظلّ النزال 64- من استخفّ بولاية رسول الله 65- من ذبح لغير القبلة 66- من انتفي من ولده 67- من برئ من مواليه 68- من تحصّر 69- من جمع بين الأختين 70- مغور الماء المنتاب 71- من أتي کاهنا 72- من أتي حائضا 73- من خبب أي أفسد امرأة على زوجها أو مملوكا على سيده 74- المرأة إذا خرجت من دارها بغير إذن زوجها 75- ومن مشى بقميص رقيق بغير إزار بادي العورة 76- الدال على الخمر 77- الشافع في حد من حدود الله بعد البلوغ الي الحاکم 87- المشفع في حد من حدود الله بعد البلوغ الي الحاکم 79- من ترك الأمر بالمعروف والنهي عن المنكر إذا أمكنه 80- من حقر مسلما 81- من قطع رحمه 82- الذين يثقفون الكلام تثقيف الشعر 83- من أفسد في الأرض والبلاد 84- من سبّ أصحاب رسول الله (صلى الله عليه وآله)

Curse and Insult of Companions:

Now, to complete the discussion and an introduction for the next discussion, we analyze the last item that is cursing and insulting companions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH):

According to Sunni traditions, those who insult the companions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) are cursed. Of course, this matter is not mentioned in the Sahihs and the reference of this tradition are some the books which are not referred to as accurate. And also, in those texts, they talk about insulting and not cursing the companions and cursing them is not prohibited in these books.

Also there are several traditions about prohibition of insulting the companions and that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) banned others from this and of course, all of them have problems in their narration. In Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim, they have quoted the Holy Prophet (PBUH) who said:

It is quoted from Abu Said Khedri who said “The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said ‘Do not insult my companions. I swear to Allah, if one of you sacrifices gold to the size of the mount Ohod, this cannot be compared to what my companions did for me’”.

- Sahih Bukhari , vol. 3 , p. 1343 , No. 3470 , By Muhammad ibn Ismail Abu Abdullah al-Bukhari al-Jafi , ( died 256 A.H ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar Ibn kasir , al-Yamama – Beirut – 1407 A.H. – 1987 A.D. , al-Tabaha : 3 , research by Dr. Mustafa Dib al-Bagha .

- Sahih Moslim , vol. 4 , p. 1967 , No. 2540 , From Abu Hurairah , author name :Moslim ibn al-Hajjaj Abu al-Hussein al-Qushairi al-Neishaburi , ( died 261 A.H. ) , Dar al-Nashr ; Dar Ahya al-Tras al-Arabi – Beirut , research by Muhammad Fouad Abdul Baqi .

Analysis of the tradition of prohibition of insulting companions:

About this tradition, some matters must be considered:

A- Who is addressed in this tradition?

B- Who are those companions who should not be insulted?

Who is addressed in this tradition?

Muslim has this tradition in his Sahih and in there, he shows the addressee of this tradition:

It is quoted from Abu Said Khedri who said “There was an argument between Khalid Ibne Walid and Abdul Rahman Ibne Awf and Khalid insulted Abdul Rahman!

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said ‘Do not insult my companions’”.

- Sahih Moslim , vol. 4 , p. 1967 , No. 2541 , author name :Moslim ibn al-Hajjaj Abu al-Hussein al-Qushairi al-Neishaburi , ( died 261 A.H. ) , Dar al-Nashr ; Dar Ahya al-Tras al-Arabi – Beirut , research by Muhammad Fouad Abdul Baqi .

It is very clear that one of the addressees of this tradition was Khalid Ibne Walid.

Allama Amini writes in his Al Qadir:

Is this tradition that Sunnis claim that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) banned insulting his companions and said that “Anyone who insults my companions will be cursed by God, His angels, and all people” specified to those of later generations and not companions of that era?

Or was it general and companions of that era were included, too (and they should not insult each other)? If it is a general and Islamic rule which even now should be considered, it must be so.

- Al-Qadir by Sheikh al-Amini , vol.10 , p. 270 .

Who are those companions who should not be insulted?

Ibne Hajar, in Fath Al Bari, writes:

This that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) says “If one of you” shows he was talking to his companions, since he earlier said “my companions” and he was talking to some of his special companions. That is because he is banning his own companions from insulting other companions.

- Fatah al-Bary , Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari , vol. 7 , p. 34 , by Ahmad ibn Ali ibn Hajar Abulfazl al-Asghalani al-Shafei , ( died 852 A.H. ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar al-Mahrefah – Beirut , research by Moheb al-Din al-khatib .

In fact, the addressees of this tradition are forgotten and without paying enough attention, they excommunicate and kill those who insult companions! Also, these traditions are about the cases that a companion insults another companion and they curse each other. And if a person deserved to be killed for insulting a companion, first those companions who insulted each other must have been killed.

Sunnis’ Answer to This Question:

Soyuti, who is one the most famous Sunni scholars, has three notes in response to this question that all the three are rejected according to Sunnis’ idea. He says:

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said “Do not insult my companions. I swear to Allah, if one of you sacrifices gold to the size of the mount Ohod, this cannot be compared to what my companions did for me”.

This tradition seems to have problem. Some say that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) declined anyone who insulted another companion from his position (of being companion of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)), because this act, absolutely, does not go with his position and status.

Sabki in the mentioned book said that apparently this hadith refers to those who joined Islam after the conquest of Mecca. That is because he says “if one of you pays charity”. That must be compared to the God’s word saying “(The reward of) those of you who pay charity and fought before the Conquest (of Mecca) is not equal to that of those after the Conquest (of Mecca). The former is more precious than the latter”.

And then he said that “We have no way but to interpret these words in this way that the addressees of this tradition are people except for companions whom the Holy Prophet (PBUH) ordered to act in a good way”.

And also he said “I heard my master, Sheikh Taj Al Din Ata Allah, who had another explanation about this issue in a meeting. He said ‘The Holy Prophet (PBUH) had some transfigurations about his companions before and after the Conquest of Mecca’. If what he said was true, this tradition includes all of the companions, but if not, it is true about those who joined Islam before Conquest of Mecca, but those who joined Islam after the Conquest of Mecca are also included. They are like those of their later Muslims compared to those who joined Islam earlier than them’”.

- Al-Qam al-Hajar Leman Zaki Sab Abi Bakr va Umar , p. 73 , research by Marzouq Ali Ibrahim .

Soyuti has three responses in these lines:

A- Those companions who insult each other are not a companion of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) anymore.

B- The addressees are those who joined Islam after the Conquest of Mecca and they are not considered as companions.

C- It is to those that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) saw in his transfigurations that they insult the companions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)!

And then he says “If the first two answers are accepted, it means that the rank of these companions is lower than other companions and higher than ordinary people”!

Criticism of Sunnis’ Justifications:

Answering the First Justification:

1- There are several failures in Soyuti’s answer to this question. From one side, he wants to still consider them as companion of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) where he says “فهم بالنسبة الي من بعدهم كالذين من قبلهم بالنسبة اليهم”, and from the other side he says that they have lost their position as a companion of the Holy Prophet (PBUH). He also says that insulting companions is a great sin and the one who insults them is cursed and will go to the Hell.

If insulting companions is a great sin, as Soyuti claims it in this book of his on page 63, and if as he claims the person who insults the companions will go to the Hell and is cursed, in the same book on pages 63 to 66, so why then he considers the addressee of this tradition one of the companions?

2- If he claims that insulting a companion by another companion does not cause the insulter to go to the Hell, so there is no relation between insulting companions, being pagan, and going to the Hell! Now, how does he conclude that Shiites are blasphemous because of insulting the companions?

3- If he believes that the companion who insults another companion of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) does not deserve to have such position and is not a companion of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) anymore, so all the companions who are mentioned in this article, including Abubakr, Omar, Othman, Muawiya, Aisha, Hafse, Abdullah Ibne Zubair, Muqaira Ibne SHuba, etc. That is because they were companions no more.

Answering the Second Justification:

In this part of Soyuti’s writing, there are still contradictions, like the ones in the first part. From one side he still considers them as companions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and says “فهم بالنسبة الي من بعدهم كالذين من قبلهم بالنسبة اليهم” and from the other side, he says that those who joined Islam after the conquest of Mecca were not companions. And he still thinks that insulting companions is a great sin and the insulter will go to the Hell!

So, if insulting companions leads the insulter to the Hell, this group of companions are hellish to and if those who joined Islam after the conquest of Mecca were not Muslims, so Muawiya and some others like him are not among companions and they may be insulted!

Answering the Third Justification:

This justification is false at all, as other Sunni scholars’ view over this issue, and even Soyuti, himself, does not believe in that. That is because this proves foreknowledge for the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and the Sunnis cannot believe in that.

Analyzing traditions about curse of those who insult companions

Tradition of Khalal in Al Sunnat

Khalal, in his Al Sunna, says that:

It is quoted from Maaz Ibne Jibil who quoted the Holy Prophet (PBUH) who said “When heresy started and my companions were insulted, scholars should show their knowledge. If not, may God, His angels, and all people curse him”.

The reference of this tradition is weak.

- Al-Sunnah by khalal , vol. 3 , p. 495 , No. 787 .

Tradition of Ahmad in Fazail Al Sahaba

Ahmad Ibne Hanbal writes in his Fazail Al Sahaba:

It is quoted from Anas Ibne Malik that some of companions said to the Holy Prophet (PBUH) “You, Messenger of Allah! We are being insulted”. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) replied “God, His angels, and all people curse those who insult my companions. And also none of their prayers will be accepted by God”.

- Fazael al-Sahabah by Ibn Hanbal , vol. 1 , p. 52 , No. 8 , author name : Ahmad ibn Hanbal Abu Abdullah al-Shaibani , ( died 241 A.H. ) , Publisher : institute of al-Resala – Beirut – 1403 A.H. – 1983 A.D. , al-Tabaha ; 1 , research by Dr. Vasiullah Muhammad Abbas .

Abu Shiba Jowhari is weak

In this tradition from Abu Shiba Jowhari (Yusif Ibne Ibrahim Al Tamimi), it is said that Ibne Hajar says about him:

Ibne Habban said that “He quotes some things from Anas that he has never said such words!It is not acceptable to quote traditions from him! He is also considered as weak by Aqili.

- Tahzib , vol. 11 , p. 407 .

Tradition of Ibne Abi Shiba

It is quoted from Ataa that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) said “Man God curses the one who insults my companions”.

- Al-ketab al-Musnaf fi al-Ahadith va al-Asar , (Musnaf Ibn Abi Shaibah), vol. 6 , p. 405 , No. 32419 , by Abu Bakr Abdullah ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Shaibah al-kufi , ( died 235 A.H ) , Dar al-Nashr : Maktabah al-Roshd – Riyadh – 1409 A.H. , al-Tabaha ; 1 , research by kamal Yusuf al-Hout .

روايت مرسل است

اين روايت مرسل است و عطاء از تابعين است .

Traditions of Heithami

It is quoted from Jabir Ibne Abdullah who said “I heard it from the Holy Prophet (PBUH) that he said ‘The number of people grows, while my companions are getting less and less. Because of that, do not insult them. God curses those who insult my companions’. This tradition is quoted by Abu Yali and Fazl Ibne Atiya, who is among its narrators, is abandoned”.

It is quoted from Ibne Omar that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) said “God curses anyone who insults my companions’. This tradition is quoted by Bizar and Tabarani in Mujam Kabir and Mujam Awusat and he says “God curses anyone who insults my companions”. Bizar Seif Ibne Omar is among narrators who is abandoned and also Abdullah Ibne Said Kharazmi is in the references of Tabarani who is considered weak.

And it is quoted from Ibne Abbas that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) said “God, His angels, and all people curse the person who insults my companions”. This tradition is narrated by Tabarani and Abdullah Ibne Kharash who is among its narrators is considered weak.

And it is quoted from Aisha that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) said “Do not insult my companions. May God curse anyone who insults my companions”. This tradition is quoted by Tabarani in his Al Awsat and its narrators are all accurate except for Ali Ibne Sahl, who is trustable.

… and it is quoted from Abu Said Khedri that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) said “God curses anyone who insults my companions”. There is another tradition from Abu Said in the Sahihs. This tradition from Abu Said is in Tabarani’s Awsat and there are some weak ones among its narrators and they are considered trustable.   

- Majmah al-Zavaed , al-Haithami , vol. 10 , p. 21 .

Analysis of Heithami’s tradition

Only two of traditions which are quoted from Heithami were remained immune from being considered as weak. One of them is the tradition in which Tabarani quoted Aisha and the other one is his tradition that Tabarani talks about Abu Said Khedri. And of course, both these traditions have problem with their reference:

The reference of the first tradition

حدثنا عبد الرحمن بن الحسين الصابونى قال حدثنا علي بن سهل المدائنى قال حدثنا أبو عاصم الضحاك بن مخلد عن بن جريج عن عطاء عن عائشة قالت قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم لا تسبوا أصحابى لعن الله من سب أصحابى

- Al-Mahjam al- Awsat , vol. 5 , p. 94 , No. 4771 , by Abulqasim Suleiman ibn Ahmad al-Tabarani , ( died 360 AH ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar al-Haramein – Cairo – 1415 A.H , Research : Tariq ibn Awazullah ibn Muhammad , Abdul Mohsen ibn Ibrahim al-Husseini .

There are several problems with reference of this tradition:

A) Sheikh Mustaqim Tabarani is unknown and is not trustable.

B) Ali Ibne Sahl Madaini; his name is not mentioned not before in Ibne Hajar’s Taqrib Al Tahzib. He is neither approved nor rejected. He is only introduced as honest by Ibne Hajar and it is his own justification and this is not what we can trust on.

C) Sheikh Ibne Jarij, who is Ataa, is thought to be one of the three: Ataa Khurasani, Ataa Ibne Abi Riyah, and Ataa Ibne Al Saib.

a) Ataa Khurasani

Ibne Hajar says:

Athrem quotes a tradition from Ahmad that shows Ataa’s pretending to be a good person (while he was not). In a long story, he says that Ataa’s tradition about Aisha cannot be trusted on, unless he says “I heard it from Aisha”.

- Tahzib al-Tahzib , vol. 7 , p. 182 , by Ahmad ibn Ali ibn Hajar Abulfazl al-Asghalani al-Shafei , ( died 852 A.H. ) , Publisher : Dar al-Fekr – Beirut – 1404 A.H. – 1984 A.D. , AL-Tabaha ; 1 .

Also Mazi says:

Muhammad Ibne Abdul Rahim quoted Ali Ibne Madyani that Ibne Jarij and Qais Ibne Sad left Ataa (and quote his traditions no more)!

- Tahzib al-kamal , vol. 20 , p. 83 , by Yusuf ibn al-Zaki Abdul Rahman Abu al-Hajaj al-Mazi , ( died 742 A.H. ) , Publisher : institute of al-Resala – Beirut – 1400 A.H. – 1980 A.D , al-Tabaha ; 1 , research by Dr. Bashar Awad Mahruf .

b) Ataa Ibne Abi Riyah:

Ibne Hajar says about him:

Ibne Habban has said that his memorization was very bad and he used to make a lot of mistakes and he was not a man of knowledge. That is why we cannot rely upon him … and also Tabarani said that he heard traditions from none of companions but Anas!

- Tahzib al-Tahzib , vol. 7 , p. 191 , No. 395 , by Ahmad ibn Ali ibn Hajar Abulfazl al-Asghalani al-Shafei , ( died 852 A.H. ) , Publisher : Dar al-Fekr – Beirut – 1404 A.H. – 1984 A.D. , AL-Tabaha ; 1 .

c) Ataa Ibne Al Saib:

As Sunnis themselves admit, he turned mad and the only ones who narrated him when he was not mad yet were Shuba and Sufyan. Ibne Hajar says about him:

Ahmad Ibne Abi Najih quoted Ibne Muin that Leith Ibne Abi Salim, like Ataa Ibne Saib, was weak and all those who quoted Atta, have quoted him while he was mad except for Shuba and Thuri … and Abdul Haq said that Ibne Jarij’s hearing tradition from Ataa dates back to the period after his turning mad.

- Tahzib al-Tahzib , vol. 7 , p. 184 , by Ahmad ibn Ali ibn Hajar Abulfazl al-Asghalani al-Shafei , ( died 852 A.H. ) , Publisher : Dar al-Fekr – Beirut – 1404 A.H. – 1984 A.D. , AL-Tabaha ; 1 .

So, this tradition cannot be valid.

The Reference of the second tradition

حدثنا أحمد (بن علي ابوالعباس البربهاري) قال حدثنا عمران بن موسى الطرسوسي قال حدثنا محمد بن مصعب القرقساني قال حدثنا فضيل بن مرزوق عن عطية عن أبي سعيد قال قال رسول الله من سب أحدا من أصحابي فعليه لعنة الله لم يرو هذا الحديث عن فضيل إلا محمد

- Al-Mahjam al- Awsat , vol. 2 , p. 236 , No. 1846 , by Abulqasim Suleiman ibn Ahmad al-Tabarani , ( died 360 AH ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar al-Haramein – Cairo – 1415 A.H , Research : Tariq ibn Awazullah ibn Muhammad , Abdul Mohsen ibn Ibrahim al-Husseini .

Also in the reference of this tradition Muhammad Ibne Musab Qarqasani could be seen who is considered by Sunni scholars as weak:

Bukhari had said that Yahya Ibne Muin did not have a good idea about him … It is quoted from Yahya Ibne Muin that he was a man of war and did not know what to quote!

Also it is quoted from Yahya Ibne Muin that his traditions are not so much valuable …

Khatib Bagdadi says “He had so many mistakes. That was because he used to narrate by heart … Nassai, too, said that he is weak … Abdul Rahman Ibne Abi Hatam quoted his father that he said “He is weak in narrating hadiths and he is not strong (enough in quoting hadiths)”.

- Tahzib al-kamal , vol. 26 , p. 460 , No. 5612 , by Yusuf ibn al-Zaki Abdul Rahman Abu al-Hajaj al-Mazi , ( died 742 A.H. ) , Publisher : institute of al-Resala – Beirut – 1400 A.H. – 1980 A.D , al-Tabaha ; 1 , research by Dr. Bashar Awad Mahruf .

So, this hadith, regarding its reference, is of no value.

Admitting to unacceptability of traditions of those who insult the companions

It is quoted from Ibne Omar who said “The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said ‘God curses the one who insults my companions’”.

There are several other traditions, in different manners, that prohibit insulting the companions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH), but (the idea of) cursing the one who insults is not strong enough and it is quoted only by Ataa.

- Zohafa al-Aqili , by al-Aqili , vol. 2 , p. 264 , No. 818 .

It is explicitly shown that if there was a tradition in the Sahihs that was about cursing the one who insults the companions, he must have had mentioned it here!

2- Cursing Special Tribes by the Holy Prophet (PBUH)

Sunnis have quoted in their traditions that the Holy Prophet (PBUH), explicitly, cursed tribes such as Tribes of Lihyan, Ril, Zakwan, Assiya (or Azl, Qarra, Zaqab), and the tribe of Muqaira Ibne Shuba.

Tribes of Lihyan, Ril, Zakwan, Assiya (and Azl, Qarra, Zaqab)

Muslim writes in his Sahih:

Khifaf Ibne Aima (one of companions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)) said “The Holy Prophet (PBUH) went to Roku’ (a part of salat) and stood up again and said ‘The tribe of Assiya disobeyed God and His Messenger. May God curse Bani Lihyan, Ril, and Zakwan’. Then he did his Sajda (and continued his salat)”.

Khifaf says that because of this matter, cursing the pagans was permitted.

- Sahih Moslim , vol. 1 , p. 678 , H. 679 , book al-Masajed , chapter استحباب القنوت في جميع الصلاة ...

Also Muslim quotes Abu Harira in his Sahih that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) said “May God curse Lahyan, Ril, Zakwan, and Assiya who disobeyed God and His Messenger”.

- Sahih Moslim , vol. 1 , p. 674 , H. 675 .

Who were these tribes? Why did the Holy Prophet (PBUH) curse them?

Nowi introduces these tribes after narrating this tradition in this manner:

Lihyan or Lahyan is name of a tribe from Hazil, as well as Ril. This tradition allows us to curse pagans.

The Holy Prophet (PBUH), in his morning salat, used to say Takbir and after Roku’ he would say “سمع الله لمن حمده ربنا ولک الحمد”, then he would stand up and say “Oh, God; May you curse tribes of Lehyan, Ril, Zakwan, and Assiya who disobeyed You and Your Messenger”.

- Sharh al-Novy Ali Sahih Moslim , vol. 16 , p. 73 .

Ibne Sad writes in Tabaqat:

Amir Ibne Malik Ibne Jafar came to the Holy Prophet (PBUH). He wanted to gift the Holy Prophet (PBUH), but the Holy Prophet (PBUH) did not accept. In return, the Holy Prophet (PBUH) invited him to join Islam, but he declined! He said “If you send some of your people with me, perhaps my people (my tribe) accept your invitation”. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) replied “I fear people of Najd!” He replied “I guarantee that no one harms them”. Then, the Holy Prophet (PBUH) sent seventy youths of Ansar who were named “Qurra” with him. When they came to “Be’r Mauna” they raised the tent and “Haraam Ibne Malhan” took the Holy Prophet’s letter to Amir Ibne Tufail. Amir assailed Haraam and killed him. Then he asked help of Bani Amir for killing other Muslims, but they did not accept to violate the safe-conduct of Bira’.    

Because of that, he asked help from tribes of Assiya, Ril, and Zakwan. They followed him and accepted his offer. On the other side, Muslims were getting worried that Haraam is late and moved to him. In their way, they came across the enemy and the number of their enemy was bigger than them and all companions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) were killed.

Words reached ear of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and the Holy Prophet (PBUH) said “It is the result of what Abi Bira did and I did not agree with him”. After that, the Holy Prophet (PBUH) used to curse murderer of these companions and say “May God curse Muzir, a drought like that of what happened at the time of Yusif, the Prophet. May God curse Bani Lahyan, Azl, Qarra, Zaqab, Ril, Zakwan, and Assiya since they rebelled against Your Messenger”.

- Al-Tabaqat al-kubra , vol. 2 , p. 51 , by Muhammad ibn Saad ibn Monih Abu Abdullah al-Basri al-Zahri , ( died 230 A.H ) , publisher : Dar Sader – Beirut .

Was this curse accepted?

Tahawi writes in this regard:

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) cursed some people in his Qonut and said “May God curse Lehyan, Ril, Zakwan, and Assiya who rebelled against God and His Messenger”.

This curse of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) led to extinction of these tribes and there remained none of them.

- Sharh Moshkel al-Asar , vol. 9 , p. 328 .

Tribe of Muqaira Ibne Shuba

Hassan Ibne Ali (AS) said “You, Amro and Muawiya! I witness God, do you know that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) cursed tribe of this person (Muqaira Ibne Shuba)?” They said “Yes!” This tradition is narrated by Tabarani who quoted his master, Zakariya Ibne Yahya Saji. Zahabi considers him as an important person in narrating traditions. I see no problems in quoting traditions and Ibne Qatan said that there are different ideas about his quotations; some consider him valid and reliable and some know him weak. Other men of tradition are those who are named in Sahih Bukahri and Sahih Muslim.

- Al-Mahjam al-kabir , vol. 3 , p. 71 , No. 2698 , Majmah al-Zavaed , vol. 7 , p. 247 , chapter ما جاء في الصلح وما کان بعده

3- Direct Curse of Some People by the Holy Prophet (PBUH)

Here is a list of people who were directly cursed by the Holy Prophet (PBUH) or when they were cursed in presence of the Holy Prophet (PBUH), the Holy Prophet (PBUH) did not react against it:

1- Hakam Ibne Aas 2- Descendants of Hakam (including Marwan Ibne Hakam, Othman’s son-in-law), 3- Abu Sufyan, 4- Yazid Ibne Abu Sufyan, 5- Muawiya Ibne Abu Sufyan, 6- Ordering to curse one of wives of the Holy Prophet (PBUH), 7- The Holy Prophet’s silence about cursing Abubakr, 8- Amro Ibne Aas, 9 and 10- Two companions who bothered the Holy Prophet (PBUH), 11- One of companions who mated his servant without being cleaned (of his last mate with someone else), 12- Gods of Quraish

1- Hakam Ibne Aas and 2- Descendants of Hakam (including Marwan Ibne Hakam, Othman’s son-in-law)

Quotation of the curse by Aisha

Hakam Ibne Al Aas was one of top leaders of Bani Umayya and he was one of the most serious enemies. In a quarrel between Marwan, his son, and Abdul Rahman Ibne Abubakr, Aisha’s brother, Aisha protected her brother and explicitly said “When Marwan was not born yet, the Holy Prophet (PBUH) cursed him”. Nassai wrote in his Sunan:

When Muawiya was collecting supporter for Yazid, Marwan said “This is tradition of Abubakr and Omar”. Abdul Rahman Ibne Abibakr said “This is tradition of Hirqil and Kaiser of Rome”. Marwan said “Abdul Rahman is the one about whom the verse ‘وَالَّذِي قَالَ لِوَالِدَيْهِ أُفٍّ لَكُمَا’ was sent”.

Words reached the ear of Aisha. She said “I swear to Allah that Marwan told a lie … but the Holy Prophet (PBUH) cursed Marwan’s father, Hakam Ibne Aas, while he was about to be born (and his mother was pregnant). So a part of the Holy Prophet’s curse was about Marwan.

- Sunnan al-Nisaei al-kubra , vol. 6 , p. 458 , No. 11491 .

Reference of the tradition

Muhammad Ibne Ziyad Al Qarshi Al Jumhi

He is a narrator of traditions in Bukhari and Muslim’s books.

Shuba Ibne Al Hajjaj

He, too, is a narrator of traditions in Bukhari and Muslim’s books.

Umayya Ibne Khalid

About him, in the related part of the program Al Maktaba Al Shamila, it is written:

His ranking according to: honest

His ranking according to Al Zahabi: reliable

Ali Ibne Al Hussein Ibne Matar Al Dirhami

About him, in the related part of the program Al Maktaba Al Shamila, it is written:

Al Mazi said that Abu Hatam considered him as “honest” and Al Nassai, too, considered him as “honest”.

و قال فى موضع آخر : لا بأس به . و ذكره ابن حبان فى كتاب " الثقات " ، و قال : مستقيم الحديث .

So, the reference of this hadith is reliable and it cannot be rejected.

Quotation of the curse by Imam Hassan (AS)

It is quoted from Abu Yahya that he was among Hassan (AS), Hussein (AS), and Marwan who were cursing each other. But Hassan (AS) told Hussein (AS) to relax. Suddenly Marwan said “You are a cursed tibe”!!!

Hassan (AS) got angry and said “You call us a cursed tribe? I swear to Allah that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) cursed you and your father on behalf of God”.

- Al-Mahjam al-kabir , vol. 3 , p. 85 , No. 2740 .

Traditions with the same content can be seen in the following:

- Musnad al-Bazar , vol. 6 , p. 241 , No. 2273 , Majmah al-Zavaed , vol. 10 , p. 72 , - Fatah al-Bary , vol. 8 , p. 577 ,  - Al-Badayah va al-Nahayah , vol. 8 , p. 259 , - Sayr Ahlam al-Nebla , vol. 3 , p. 478 , - Qarib al-Hadith by Ibn al-Jozi , vol. 2 , p. 197 , - al-Matalib al-Alyah , vol. 18 , p. 267 .

Quotation of the curse by Abdullah Ibne Zubair

I heard it from Abdullah Ibne Zubair while he was standing next to Ka’ba that he said “I swear to the creator of this House that God cursed Hakam and his child through his Messenger’s worda”.

- Al-Bahr al-Zakhar ,( Musna al-Bazar ) , vol. 6 , p. 159 , No. 2197 , by Abu Bakr Ahmad ibn Amr ibn Abdul khaleq al-Bazar , ( died 292 A.H ) , publisher : institute of Uloom al-Quran , Maktabah al-Uloom va al-Hakam – Beirut , al-Medina – 1409 A.H , AL-Tabaha 1 , research by Dr. Mahfouz al-Rahman Zeinullah .

- Al-Ahadith al-Mukhtarah , vol. 9 , p. 310 , by Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Abdul Vahed ibn Ahmad al-Hanbali al-Moghaddasi , ( died 643 A.H ) , publisher : Maktabah al-Nehzah al-Haditha – holy Mecca – 1410 A.H , al-Tabaha ; 1 , research by Abdul Malek ibn Abdullah ibn Dahish .

- Al-Badayah va al-Nahayah , vol. 8 , p. 280 , by Ismail ibn Umar ibn kasir Abu al-Fada , ( died 774 A.H ) , PUBLISHER : Maktabah al-Maharef – Beirut .

- Kanz al-Ahmal fi Sunnan Al-Aqval va al-Afhal , vol. 11 , p. 161 , No. 31732 – 31735 , by Ala al-Din Ali al-Mottaqi ibn Hesam al-Din al-Indi , ( died 975 A.H ) , publisher : Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Beirut – 1419 A.H. – 1998 A.D , al-Tabaha ; 1 , research by Mahmoud Umar al-Domiati .

3- Abu Sufyan, 4- Yazid Ibne Abu Sufyan, 5- Muawiya Ibne Abu Sufyan

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) saw someone who was riding on a camel and another person was holding a donkey’s rein and another person was walking behind them. Then he cursed all the three.

Bazar, a famous Sunni scholar, writes:

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) was sitting that he saw a person on a camel and another person was holding its rein and a man was walking behind them. Then the Holy Prophet (PBUH) said “May God curse the one who is riding on the camel, the one who is holding its rein, and the one who is walking behind them”.

- Musnad al-Bazzar , vol. 9 , p. 286 , No. 3839 .

This tradition is considered true by Heithami and attaches another tradition to that:

This tradition is narrated by Bazar and all its narrators are reliable.

It is also quoted from Muhajir Ibne Qonfoz that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) saw three people with one animal (to ride on). Then he said “The third person is cursed”. This tradition is mentioned by Tabarani in Al Mujam Al Kabir and all its narrators are reliable.

- Majmah al-Zavaed , vol. 1 , p. 113 .

Who are these three people?

In Tarikh, Tabari introduces these three people. He says:

It is God’s word that calls a tribe as “cursed” and there is no doubt that this cursed tribe is Bani Umayya. And among curses of Bani Umayya in the words of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) is that one day the Holy Prophet (PBUH) saw Abu Sufyan riding one a camel and Muawiya was puuling that (animal) from the front and Yazid, his son, was walking behind them. So, he said “May God curse the forefront, the rider, and the follower”.

- Tarikh al-Tabari , vol. 5 , p. 622 .

- Waqeha Sefain Ibn Muzahem , vol. 1 , p. 220 .

A specific curse of Muawiya

It is quoted from Ibne Abbas that “I was playing with some children then the Holy Prophet (PBUH) came across me. I hid behind the door and he softly pushed the door toward me and said ‘Go and call Muawiya’. I returned to the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and said ‘He is eating’. Then the Holy Prophet (PBUH) said ‘Go and call him’. I returned and said ‘He is eating’. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said ‘May he never feel well-fed’”.

- Sahih Moslim , vol. 4 , p. 2010 , No. 2604 , chapter  بَاب من لَعَنَهُ النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم أو سَبَّهُ أو دَعَا عليه وَلَيْسَ هو أَهْلًا لِذَلِكَ

Compliance of Prophet’s curse toward Muawiya

Bilazari said:

One day the Holy Prophet (PBUH) ordered the presence of Muawiya, but he delayed. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said “May he never feel well-fed”. That is why he always used to say that “I always have the Holy Prophet’s curse with me”. That was why he used to eat seven times or even more in a day!

-Fotoh al-Buldan , al-Buladhiri , vol. 3 , p. 582 , research : Publication and causing indexing : Dr. Salah al-Din al-Monjad , publisher : Maktabah al-Nehzah Egypt – Cairo .

Also Tabari said:

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said “May he never feel well-fed”! That was why he never felt so and used to say “I swear to Allah, I do not stop eating for feeling complete, I do so because of being tired”.

- Tarikh al-Tabari , vol. 8 , p. 186 , Research : Review and correct and adjust : : A group of eminent scientists , Published by: institute of al-Ahlamy Lelmatbohat - Beirut - Lebanon.

Also Zahabi says:

After the third time (that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) called for Muawiya and he did not show up), the Holy Prophet (PBUH) said “May you never feel well-fed”. And he never felt complete!

- Sayr Ahlam al-Nebla , vol. 3 , p. 123 .

He also says in another place:

Muawiya was a person who used to eat a lot!

- Sayr Ahlam al-Nebla , vol. 3 , p. 124 .

Also Ibne Kathir said:

After the second time, the Holy Prophet (PBUH) said “May he never feels well-fed”! That was he never felt so!

I, too, believe that Muawiya never felt well-fed after the Holy Prophet’s curse and this curse was upon him even when he was Khalifa. That is why it is said that he used to eat seven times a day meals containing meat and he used to say “I swear to Allah, I do not feel complete! I am just tired”.

- Al-Badayah va al-Nahayah , vol. 6 , p. 189 .

Also Ibne Abi Shiba says:

Muawiya’s belly was so huge that it changed its form and he even could not speech while he was standing. That is why he was the first person in Islam that gave speech while he was sitting!

- Ibn Abi Shaibah , Al-Musnaf , vol. 7, p. 247 , Va Anzor Al-Ahad Va al-Masany , vol. 1, p. 380 ,  and Fatah Al-Bary , vol. 2 , p. 401 , and sayr Ahlam Al-Nebla’: 13 / 458 .

Zahabi’s answer about vulgar interpretation of Hadith

Some of lovers of Muawiya have interpreted this tradition in this regard that this was a pray of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) toward Muawiya that he does not feel hungry on the Day of Judgment! That was because the Holy Prophet (PBUH) said “The one who is well-fed in this world will be hungry in the hereafter”.

Zahabi answers in response:

Some of lovers of Muawiya have interpreted this tradition in this regard that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) said “May Muawiya does not feel well-fed so that he does not feel hungry on the Day of Judgment! That was because there was a tradition from the Holy Prophet (PBUH) in which he said “The one who is well-fed in this world will be hungry in the hereafter”.

But I believe that this interpretation is not true and it is very bad!

The true answer is that we should say that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) said “May God salute anyone of my people who is cursed by me’!

- Alp-ZAhabi , Sayr Ahlam al-Nebla , vol. 3 , p. 123 .

But Zahabi did not say why this curse came true while it was supposed to, of course to him, be presented in the form of mercy of God!

Order (or not prohibition) of one of the prophet’s wife to insult another wife!

In Sahih Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, and other Sahihs, and of course it does not show that we confirm what is said in there, it is said that Zeinab Bint Jahash, one of wives of the Holy Prophet (PBUH), insulted Aisha in presence of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and Aisha, as the Holy Prophet (PBUH) orders her, insults her back. And the Holy Prophet (PBUH) encourages Aisha to insult her back and also is happy with that and even motivates her to do so!

It is quoted from Aisha that wives of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) were in two parties (and groups); one part were Aisha, Hafse, Safiya, and Suda, and the other part were Umme Salame and other wives of the Holy Prophet (PBUH). Muslims used to gift the Holy Prophet (PBUH) when he was at Aisha’s house since they were informed of the Holy prophet’s love to Aisha.

So, those wives who were with Umme Salame told her to speak to the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and inform him of this matter. So, Umme Salame did so, but the Holy Prophet (PBUH) did not answer her.

When they asked Umme Salame about the result, she said “The Holy Prophet (PBUH) did not answer me”.

She spoke about this matter to the Holy Prophet (PBUH) when the Holy Prophet (PBUH) was at her house. But this time, the Holy Prophet (PBUH) said “Do not bother me by bothering Aisha. That is because I am not inspired (receive oracles) while I am in bed with my wives except for the time I am in bed with Aisha”.

As the result, Umme Salame said “You, Messenger of God! I repent for what I did”!

But these women went to Fateme (AS), daughter of the Holy Prophet (PBUH), and asked her to speak to the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and want her to act justly toward his wives in comparison to Aisha!

Fateme Zahra (AS) went to the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and spoke to him about this matter. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) replied “O, My daughter! Don’t you like what I like?” She replied “Yes!”

So, she returned to other wives and told them what went on. Then, they asked her to offer such request again, but she rejected. And they sent Zeinab Bint Jahash (the prophet’s wife) to the Holy Prophet (PBUH).

She came to the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and spoke boldly! She said “Your wives ask you to behave them justly” and she spoke loudly! Then she addressed Aisha while she was sitting there and insulted her! She continued to that extend that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) looked at Aisha and said to her “Do you answer her?”

Aisha answered Zeinab’s insults and she was forced to be silent!

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) looked at Aisha and said “She is daughter of Abubakr”!!!

- Sahih al-Bukhari , vol. 2 , p. 911 , No. 2442 , book al-Hobah  , chapter من أَهْدَى إلى صَاحِبِهِ وَتَحَرَّى بَعْضَ نِسَائِهِ دُونَ بَعْضٍ

The same tradition with minor differences is mentioned in Sahih Muslim:

Aisha, wife of the Holy Prophet (PBUH), said that the wives of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) sent Fateme (AS), the Holy Prophet’s daughter, to him.

Fateme (AS) came to the Holy Prophet (PBUH) while I was under a sheet with the Holy Prophet (PBUH). She asked for permission to enter and the Holy Prophet (PBUH) let her in. She said “Father! Your wives sent me to you and ask you to act justly toward Aisha”.

I was silent. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said “O, my daughter! Don’t you like what I like?” She answered “Yes, the Messenger of Allah!” Then the Holy Prophet (PBUH) said “So you, too, must love Aisha”!

When Fateme (AS) heard this, she got out and told them what she heard.

They told Fateme (AS) “You were of no benefit to us. Go to the Holy Prophet (PBUH) again and tell him what we told you”. But she did not accept and said “I swear to Allah that I will say no more in this regard to my father”.

The wives of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) sent Zeinab, daughter of Hajash, to speak to the Holy Prophet (PBUH). She was respected by the Holy Prophet (PBUH) among them, like me. And I saw none like her in piety, being religious, honesty, kindness, generosity, and humbleness. She was just a little tough and that was temporary.

She asked permission from the Holy Prophet (PBUH) to come in while the Holy Prophet (PBUH) was lying with me under a sheet, as we were when Fateme (AS) wanted to come in. she was let in.

She said “You, Messenger of Allah! Your wives sent me and they ask you toact justly toward Aisha”. And then she insulted me and oppressed me.

I respected the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and was waiting for his beck. Finally, I figured out that he is happy with my taking revenge. When I insulted Zeinab, I did not let her speak and defeated her very fast!

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said “She is daughter of Abubakr” while he was laughing!

- Sahih Moslim , vol. 4 , p. 1891 , No. 2442 , book Fazael al-Sahabah , chapter في فضل عائشه

Ibne Abi Dawoud also quoted this tradition in the following form. He claims that the Holy Prophet (PBUH), expressly, ordered Aisha to insult Zeinab. And Aisha not only insulted Zeinab, but she also insulted the family of Imam Ali (AS)!

Ibne Awn, who is believed by scholars to have contact with Aisha and used to meet her a lot, quoted Aisha who said “One day the Holy Prophet (PBUH) came to me and Zeinab, daughter of Hajash, was with us. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) did something with his hand (that was not appropriate to do in presence of Zeinab) and I informed him of presence of Zeinab and showed her not to do so”.

Zeinab came to Aisha and started to insult her. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) told her to stop, but she did not listen to him and continued what she was doing!!! Then the Holy Prophet (PBUH) told Aisha to insult her back!!! Aisha insulted Zeinab and her insults were stronger (more vulgar) than those of Zeinab!!!

Zeinab went to Ali (AS) and said that Aisha had insulted him and explained what happened. Fateme (AS) went to the Holy Prophet (PBUH). The Holy Prophet (PBUH) told her “I swear to the God of Ka’ba that Aisha is loved by me”! And because of that, Fateme (AS) returned!!!

- Sunnan Abi Davoud , vol. 4 , p. 274 , No. 4898 .

 It is clear that this tradition is meant to prove supremacy and virtues of Aisha, but with what criterion and value?!

Ibne Hajar writes after quoting this tradition:

Nassai and Ibne Majah quoted Aisha who said “I went to Zeinab and she insulted me. Although the Holy Prophet (PBUH) banned her from doing so, she continued. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) told me ‘You, too, insult her!’ I insulted her so toughly that he could not breathe a word!!!”

- Fatah al-Bary , vol. 5 , p. 152 .

The Holy Prophet’s not prohibition of cursing Abubakr

According to Sunni traditions, a person was insulting Abubakr in presence of the Holy Prophet (PBUH). The Holy Prophet (PBUH) did not excommunicate that person and even did not ban him from that. When Abubakr’s patience finished, he started to insult that person. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) got up and left there!

It is quoted from Abu Harira that while the Holy Prophet (PBUH) was sitting, a person insulted Abubakr. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) was looking happily. When Abubakr’s patience reached its end and he got angry, Abubakr insulted that person back. At this moment, the Holy Prophet (PBUH) got angry and stood up. So, Abubakr followed him and said “You, Messegner of God! He was insulting me and you were seated. But I used some of his own words against him and you got angry and left?”

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) replied “There was an angel with you that when that man was insulting you, he would return his insults to him. But when you started to insult that person, Satan interfered (and that angel was replaced by Satan) and I may not sit somewhere that Satan is in there”.

Heithami writes about this tradition:

This tradition is quoted by Ahmad Ibne Hanbal and Tabarani in Al Mujam Al Awsat and narrators of Ahmad Ibne Hanbal are all narrators of the Sahihs.

- Majmah al-Zavaed , vol. 8 , p. 190 .

References of this hadith and those alike

- Sunnan Abi Davoud , vol. 4 , p. 436 , No. 4896 and 4897 , chapter في الإنتصار Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal , vol. 2 , p. 436 , No. 9622 , - Musnad al-Bazzar , vol. 15 , p. 157 , No. 8495 , - al-Mahjam al-Awsat , vol. 7 , p. 189 , No. 7239 , - Ehteqad Ahl al-Sunnah , al-Lalkaei , vol. 7 , p. 1257 , No. 2369 . – Tafsir by al-Salabi , vol. 3 , p. 167 , - Shohab al-Iman Baihaqi , vol. 5 , p. 284 , No. 6669 , - Al-Adab by Baihaqi , vol. 1 , p. 160 , - book al-Asma al-Mobhamah , vol. 3 , p. 164 , - al-Riyadh al-Nazrah , vol. 2 , p. 152 , No. 626 and 627 , - Tafsir by al-Thaalbi , vol. 3 , p. 167 , - Al-Dur al-Mansor , vol. 7 , p. 360 and …

There are explicit matters about this issue that will be mentioned in the end of this article.

6- Amro Ibne Aas

In a tradition from Tabarani, it is said that Muqaira and Amro Ibne Al Aas wanted to disrespect Imam Hassan (AS). Imam Hassan (AS) went over the pulpit and started speaking.

Then Hassan Ibne Ali (AS) said “I ask you, Muawiya and Muqaira! Do you know that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) cursed Amro for every line of poem that he was reading?” They said “Yes!” Tabarani quoted this tradition form his master Zakariya Ibne Yahya Saji, who is, as Zahabi says, one of the most outstanding scholars of narration among Sunnis. And he sees no problem with him and his hadiths. And also Ibne Qatan says that there are some arguments about his hadiths. Some consider him as reliable and some others consider him as weak. Other men of the hadith are narrators of Sahih Muslim and Sahih Bukhari.

-Mahjam al-kabir , vol. 3 , p. 71 , No. 2698 , - Majmah al-Zavaed , vol. 7 , p. 247 , chapter ما جاء في الصلح وما کان بعده

7 and 8- Two companions who bothered the Holy Prophet (PBUH)

It is quoted from Aisha that two people came to the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and said something to the Holy Prophet (PBUH) that I could understand what it was about. But those two made the Holy Prophet (PBUH) angry and the Holy Prophet (PBUH) cursed both of them.

- Sahih Moslim , vol. 4 , p. 125 , No. 2600 , chapter :من لعنه النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم أو سبه أو دعا عليه وليس هو أهلا لذلك كان له زكاة وأجرا ورحمة    

9- One of companions who mated his servant before her being non-pregnant is proved

Abu Durda’ quoted the Holy Prophet (PBUH) saw a servant who was standing by a tent who was pregnant. Then he said “Apparently the master of this servant has mated her”. They replied “Yes!”

Then the Holy Prophet (PBUH) said “I want to curse him in a way that until his death he cannot release himself from my curse. How can he claim this child (as his son while he mated his servant before her being non-pregnant is proved! Perhaps this is not his son and he considers him as his son)? Perhaps it is not his child. How can he take him as his slave (while he might be his own son) and taking him as slave is not allowed?

- Sahih Moslim , vol. 2 , p. 1065 , No. 1441 , book al-Nekah , chapter :تَحْرِيمِ وَطْءِ الْحَامِلِ الْمَسْبِيَّةِ

Explanation about the tradition

Nowi writes about this tradition:

Here mating is meant. This woman was a pregnant slave with whom mating is not allowed until her giving birth to a child. What the Holy Prophet (PBUH) here says is that there is still six month to her giving birth and perhaps this child belongs to the companions who is master of this slave and it may also be for the previous owner if this slave. If it belongs to the companion, so it would be his child and will take heritage from him. But if this is someone else’s, so he will take no heritage from that companion because there is no blood relationship between them. Also, the companion can take that child as slave.

So this tradition means that if he accepts that child as his child, it may be someone else’s child and taking heritage from him is not allowed. And if, on the other hand, takes the child as his slave, he may be his own child and because of that, he must had waited until the time that her being pregnant or the other way is made clear, so that he would not have such problems.

- Sharh al-Novy Ali Sahih Moslim , vol. 10 , p. 15 .

It is true that in this case, it is not made clear that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) had cursed the person in the end or no, but what this tradition shows is permission of cursing such a person by the Holy Prophet (PBUH).

10- Pagans of Quraish and their gods

The pagans of Quraish said “You, Abu Talib! Truly Muhammad cursed our sacred ideas and our fathers and called them fool and we cannot tolerate this act”.

- Al-Moharrar al-vajiz fi Tafsir al-ketab al-Aziz, vol. 4, p. 493, - Tafsir by Ibn Kasir , vol. 3 , p. 179 , -  Tafsir by al-Thaalbi , vol. 4 , p. 30 , - Tafsir by al-Sahdi , vol. 1 , p. 523 .

 

 

 

The Companions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) Who Cursed Some Other Companions!

In Sunni books, it is repeatedly mentioned that some companions cursed each other or someone cursed some companions in presence of the Holy Prophet (PBUH), but he did not prohibit that. In several cases, these traditions have valid references and in other cases, then have been repeated.

Here is a list of them:

1- Companions Who Were Cursed by Imam Ali (AS) according to Sunni traditions, including: Muawiya, Amro Ibne Aas, Aba Al Aour, Habib Ibne Muslima, Abdul Rahman Ibne Khalid, Zahhak Ibne Qais, Walid, Abdullah Ibne Zubair, Abu Musa Ashari, Muqaira Ibne Shuba, Busr Ibne Artat, Marwan Ibne Hakam

2- Companions Who Were Cursed by Imam Hassan (AS) including: Muawiya Ibne Abu Sufyan and Marwan Ibne Hakam

3- Abubakr Cursed One of His Servants

4- Those Companions Who Were Cursed by Omar including Sad Ibne Ibada and Samara

5- Companions Who Were Cursed by Aisha including: Othman Ibne Afwan, Muawiya, Amro Ibne Aas, and Muhammad Ibne Abi Bakr

1- Companions Who Were Cursed by Imam Ali (AS)

These companions include Muawiya, Amro Ibne Aas, Aba Al Aour, Habib Ibne Muslima, Abdul Rahman Ibne Khalid, Zahhak Ibne Qais, Walid Ibne Aqaba, Abdullah Ibne Zubair, Abu Musa Ashari, Muqaira Ibne Shuba, Busr Ibne Artat, and Marwan Ibne Hakam.

1-7- Muawiya, Amro Ibne Aas, Aba Al Aour, Habib Ibne Muslima, Abdul Rahman Ibne Khalid, Zahhak Ibne Qais, Walid

In his morning salat, Ali used to say in his Qonut (a part of his salat) “May God curse Muawiya, Amro Ibne Aas, Aba Al Aour, Habib Ibne Muslima, Abdul Rahman Ibne Khalid, Zahhak Ibne Qais, Walid”. Muawiya heard it. So he used to insult Ali, Ibne Abbas, Hassan, Hussein, and Malik Ashtar in his Qonut!!!

- Al-kamel fi al-Tarikh , vol. 2 , p. 81 , chapter ذکر اجتماع الحکمين

- Nahayah al-Arb fi Fonon al-Adab , vol. 20 , p. 96 .

- The history of Ibn khaldun , vol. 2 , p. 637 , chapter أمر الحکمين

8- Abdullah Ibne Zubair

Ali (AS) entered the house and he was very sad. He told his two sons “How is it possible that you two were guarding the house and they could kill the Commander of Believers?” They he slapped Hassan in his face and bit Hussein in his chest. He also insulted Muhammad Ibne Talhe and cursed Abdullah Ibne Zubair”!!!

- Moravej al-Zahab , vol. 1 , p. 311 , by Abu al-Hassan Ali ibn al-Hussein ibn Ali al-Masoudi , ( died : 346 A.H. ) , Died : 346 A.H.

9- Abu Musa Ashari

Abu Musa Ashari wrote a letter to Ali (AS). In it, he wrote “I heard that you have cursed me in the Qonut of your morning salat and the ignorant people said Amen after you! Allah, the Almighty, said ‘I recommend you not to be of the ignorant’”!

- Al-sunnah by Abdullah ibn Ahmad vol. 2 p. 551 No. 1267, Author name: Abdullah ibn Ahmad ibn Hanbal al-Shaibani , ( died 290 A.H ) , publisher : Dar Ibn al-Qim – al-Damam – 1406 A.H. , Edition : first , research by Dr. Muhammad Saeid Salem al-Qahtani .

The same expression is quoted by Ibne Abi Al Hadid:

- Sharh Nahjol – Balaghah , vol. 2 , p. 153 , by Abu Hamed Izz al-Din ibn Hobullah ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Abi al-Hadid al-Madaeni , ( died 655 A.H ) , publisher : Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Beirut / Lebanon – 1418 A.H. – 1998 A.D , Edition : first ,research by Muhammad Abdul karim al-Nimri .

Ibne Abi Al Hadid also says:

Ali (AS) used to curse Muawiya …, and Abu Musa Ashari in Qonuts of his morning and sunset (Maqrib) salats.      

- Sharh Nahjol – Balaghah , vol. 4 , p. 47 , by Abu Hamed Izz al-Din ibn Hobullah ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Abi al-Hadid al-Madaeni , ( died 655 A.H ) , publisher : Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Beirut / Lebanon – 1418 A.H. – 1998 A.D , Edition : first ,research by Muhammad Abdul karim al-Nimri .

The same matter, in which name of Abu Musa is mentioned, is reflected in the following:

- Waqeha Seffain , vol. 1 , p. 552 , by Nasr ibn Muzahem ibn Sayyar al-Menqari , ( died : 212 A.H ) , Died : 212 A.H.

10- 12- Muqaira Ibne Shuba, Busr Ibne Artat, Marwan Ibne Hakam

Ibne Abi Al Hadid quotes the tradition about cursing Muawiya, which was mentioned earlier, in this way:

In his morning and sunset (Maqrib) salat, Ali used to say in his Qonut (a part of his salat) “May God curse Muawiya, Amro Ibne Aas, Muqaira, Walid Ibne Aqaba, Aba Al Aur, Zahhak Ibne Qais, Basar Ibne Artat, Habib Ibne Muslima, Abu Musa Ashari, and Marwan Ibne Hakam”. They, too, used to curse Imam Ali (AS) in Qonut of their salats!

- Sharh Nahjol – Balaghah , vol. 4 , p. 47 , by Abu Hamed Izz al-Din ibn Hobullah ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Abi al-Hadid al-Madaeni , ( died 655 A.H ) , publisher : Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Beirut / Lebanon – 1418 A.H. – 1998 A.D , Edition : first ,research by Muhammad Abdul karim al-Nimri .

2- Companions Who Were Cursed by Imam Hassan (AS)

The companions who were cursed by Imam Hassan (AS) include Muawiya Ibne Abu Sufyan and Marwan Ibne Hakam.

Muawiya Ibne Abu Sufyan

When Muawiya came to Kufa, he started to speak about Ali (AS) while Hassan (AS) and Hussein (AS) were listening to his speech. Muawiya insulted Ali (AS). Then he insulted Hassan (AS). Then, Hussein (AS) stood up and wanted to reply him, but Hassan (AS) held his hand and asked him to sit down. Then he stood up and said “You who are speaking about Ali (AS)! I am Hassan and Ali (AS) is my father and you are Muawiya and your father is Sakhr. My mother is Fateme Zahra (AS) and your mother is Hind. My grandfather is Messenger of Allah and your grandfather is Rabi’a. My grandmother is Khadija (AS) and your grandmother is Qatila. May God curse the one whose origin is despicable and the one whose wickedness is known to all from the past and the one who is pioneer in blasphemy and hypocrisy”.

So people all said “Amen!”

- Jomohrah Khattab al-Arab vol. 2 p. 14, chapter رد الحسن بن على على معاوية حين نال منه ومن أبيه

- Maqatel al-Talebin , vol. 1 , p. 19 , by Abu al-Faraj al-Isfahani , Ali ibn al-Hussein , ( died : 356 A.H ) , Died : 356 A.H.

- Sharh Nahjol – Balaghah , vol. 16 , p. 27 .

Shiite and Sunni Great People’s Amen to This Curse

In the text of this tradition, it is mentioned that all people said “Amen”. Abu Al Faraj Isfahani writes in his book:

Fazl Ibne Hassan Basri quoted Yahya Ibne Muin who said “We, too, say Amen!”

Abu Ubaid, too, said “We, too, say Amen!”

Abu Al Faraj (the writer of the book) says “I, too, say Amen!”

- Maqatel al-Talebin , vol. 1 , p. 19 , by Abu al-Faraj al-Isfahani , Ali ibn al-Hussein , ( died : 356 A.H ) , Died : 356 A.H.

Ibne Abi Al Hadid, after quoting “Amen” of these scholars, writes:

Abu Al Faraj said that Abu Ubaid quoted Fazl who said “I, too, say Amen!” Abu Al Faraj, too, says Amen!

I, Abdul Hamid Ibne Abi Al Hadid, too, say Amen!

- Sharh Nahjol – Balaghah , vol. 16 , p. 28 , by Abu Hamed Izz al-Din ibn Hobullah ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Abi al-Hadid al-Madaeni , ( died 655 A.H ) , publisher : Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Beirut / Lebanon – 1418 A.H. – 1998 A.D , Edition : first ,research by Muhammad Abdul karim al-Nimri .

Allama Marashi writes in his Sharh Ihqaq Haq under this tradition:

This tradition is quoted by Qazi Nur Allah Tustari from Seyyed Alim, Safi Abu Turab Murteza Ibne Da’i Ibne Qasim Hassani who quoted Mufid Abdul Rahman Ibne Ahmad Neishabouri who quoted Seyyed Abu Al Maali Ismail Ibne Hassan Ibne Muhammad Hassani Naqib in Neishabour and Abubakr Muhammad Ibne Abdul Aziz Hiri Kerami who quoted Hakim Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibne Abdullah Hafiz who quoted Abubakr Ahmad Ibne Khalaf Qazi who quoted Ali Ibne Al Samad who quoted yahya Ibne Muin.

Then he says “Ibne Abdul Samad (one of narrators of this tradition) told us ‘I, too, say Amen’. Qazi (Ahmad Ibne Kamil who is one of narrators of this tradition) says ‘I, too, say Amen. You may say as well’. Also Muhammad Ibne Abdul Hafiz says ‘I, too, say Amen’. Seyyed and Hiri (narrators of this tradition) say ‘We, too, say Amen! Amen! Amen!’ Sheikh Mufid Abdul Rahman (one of narrators of the hadith) says ‘I, too, say Amen since angels say Amen!’ Seyyed Safi (one of narrators of the hadith) says ‘I, too, say Amen!’ Also Ibne Babwaih said ‘I, too, say Amen! Amen! Amen! Amen!’”

- Sharh Ehqaq al-Hagh , al-Sayed al-Marashi , vol. 26 , p. 534 .

After quoting what Abu Al Faraj Isfahani says, Seyyed Muhsin Amin writes:

I, too, say Amen!

- Ahyan al-Shiah , vol. 1 , p. 570 , by Sayed Mohsen al-Amin .

After quoting what Ibne Abi Al Hadid says, Sharaf Al Din says:

We, too, say Amen!

- Solh al-Hassan (As), p. 289 by Sayed Sharaf al-Din.

After quoting what Ibne Abi Al Hadid said, Sheikh Ali Najl Muhammad Aal Seif Al Khatti writes:

The author of this book, too, says Amen! Mercies of God upon the one who says Amen!

- Vafyat Imams – Scientists from Bahrain and Qatif , p. 108 .

Said Ayyub, one of those who converted to Shiism, says:

Said Ayyub, the author of this book, too, says Amen!

- Mahalem al-Fetn , vol. 2 , p. 178 , by Sayed Ayoub .

You, too, say Amen!

We, writers of this article, say Amen. You, respected readers of this text would say “Amen”, too.

Marwan Ibne Hakam

1- Marwan was one the leaders of blockade of Othman … and Hassan Ibne Ali (AS) said to him “God cursed your father while he was waiting for your birth” and told him “May God curse Hakam and his children”.

- Al-Badayah va al-Nahayah , vol. 8 , p. 259 .

2- There occurred a quarrel between Imam Hassan (AS) and Marwan. Marwan used vulgar words, but Imam Hassan (AS) remained silent. At this moment he threw his snot over his right hand. Then Imam Hassan (AS) told him “Down with you! Don’t you know that the right hand is for face and the left one for genitals? Curse you!”

At this moment Marwan became silent.

- The history of al-kholafa , vol. 1 , p. 190 .

3- Abubakr Cursed One of His Servants

It is quoted from Aisha that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) heard Abubakr was insulting one of his servants. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) told him “You, Abubakr! You insult while you are called honest?!!! I swear to creator of Ka’ba that it is impossible”.

So, Abubakr released that servant that day and went to the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and said to him “You, Messenger of Allah! I will not repeat what I did”.

- Navader al-Usool fi Ahadith al-Rasoul Tirmidhi , vol. 1 , p. 364 , - al-zavajer , vol. 2 , p. 635 , - Shoab al-Iman Baihaqi , vol. 4 , p. 294 , No. 5154 , - Ehya Uloom al-Din , vol. 3 , p. 123 , - al-Tarqib va al-Tahzib , vol. 3 , p. 312 , No. 4212 , - Merqah al-Mafatih , vol. 9 , p. 94 .

An explanation about this tradition

As it was mentioned earlier in this article and it will be discussed later in detail, cursing a pagan has no problem and the Holy Prophet (PBUH) did so in several different occasions and companions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) followed this tradition.

So, it is impossible that the servant of Abubakr was pagan, because, according to Sunnis’ idea, the position of being “Honest” is not greater than being “prophet”!

When the Holy Prophet (PBUH) used to curse pagans, how is it possible that he bans others from insulting them? So, we can say for sure that this servant who was insulted by Abubakr was Muslim and, according Sunni rules, he is considered as a companion.

4- Those Companions Who Were Cursed by Omar

This group of companions include: Sad Ibne Ibada and Samara.

May God kill Sad Ibne Ibada!

It is said in Sahih Bukhari that Omar cursed him:

Someone said “You are killing Sad Ibne Ibada!” I replied “May God kill him!”

- Sahih al-Bukhari , vol. 6 , p. 2506 , No. 6442 , chapter رجم الحبلي

Tabari also narrates this story in this manner:

When Sad was being trampled, someone said “You killed him!” Omar said “May God kill him! He is a hypocrite”.

- Tarikh al-Tabari , vol. 2 , p. 460 .

Similar to this story can be seen in the following:

- AL-Nasaeh al-kafia by Muhammad ibn Aqil , p. 173 , - sharh Nahjol – Balaghah , vol. 20 , p. 21 , - al-Aqd al-Farid , vol. 3 , p. 62 .

May God kill Samara!

It is quoted from Ibne Abbas that Omar heard that Samara (one of the companions) sold wine. Then, Omar said “May God kill him”.

- Sahih Moslim , vol. 3 , p. 1207 , No. 1582 .

Sunni scholars have introduced this person as Samara Ibne Jundab:

The one who sold wine was Samara Ibne Jundab.

- Qavames al-Asma al-Mobhamah al-Waqeha fi Moton al-Ahadith al-Musnadah , vol. 9 , p. 604 , by khalaf ibn Abdul Malak ibn Bashkowal Abu al-Qasim , ( died 578 A.H ) , Publisher : Alam al-kotob – Beirut – 1407 A.H. , Edition : first , research by Dr. Izz al-Din Ali al-sayed , Muhammad kamal al-Din Izz al-Din .

Translation of Samara

Sunni scholars introduced him as a companion in the following:

- Mahrefah al-Sahabah , vol. 3 , p. 1415 , No. 1321 , author name : by Abi Nahim al-Asbahani , ( died : 430 A.H ) .

- Al-Estihab fi Mahrefah al-Asaab , vol. 2 , p. 653 , No. 1063 , by Yusuf ibn Abdullah ibn Muhammad ibn Abdul Barr , ( died 463 A.H. ) , Publisher : Dar al-Jil – Beirut – 1412 A.H , Edition : first , research by Ali Muhammad al-Bedjaoui .

- Asad al-Qabah fi Mahrefah al-Sahabah , vol. 2 , p. 527 , No. 2231 , by Izz al-Din ibn al-Asir Abi al-Hassan Ali ibn Muhammad al-Jazri , ( died : 630 A.H ) , publisher : Dar Ahya al-Tras al-Arabi – Beirut / Lebanon – 1417 A.H. – 1996 A.D , Edition : first , research by Adel Ahmad al-Refaei.

5- Companions Who Were Cursed by Aisha

This group of companions include: Othman Ibne Afwan, Amro Ibne Al Aas, and Muhammad Ibne Abibakr

Othman Ibne Afwan

May God kill Othman!

1- Othman delayed paying the monthly (money that Aisha used to receive) of Aisha. She got angry and said “You, Othman! You betrayed those who trusted you and annoyed people …”

Othman told her “God introduced wife of Noah and wife of Lut as two examples for blasphemous (and you are like the two who were wives of prophets).

Because of that, Aisha opposed Othman strongly and used to say “You, people! This is the Holy Prophet’s dress which is not still so much old. But see how tradition of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) is outdated (and Khalifa does not follow tradition of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)). Kill Na’thal (meaning an old Jew and here refers to Othman) and May God kill him!”

Aisha went to Mecca. When she was done with her hajj, she heard that Othman is killed. She asked “What happened then?” They told her “People paid homage to Ali (AS)!!!”

Then Aisha said “I swear to Allah that Othman was killed while he was oppressed. I swear to Allah that I will seek his revenge. One day of Othman’s life was better than the whole life!!!”

- Al-Mahsoul , Razi , vol. 4 , p. 492 .

2- It is what Aisha said: “Kill Na’thal. May God kill him”. And she meant Othman. This was the time that she was angry with Othman and she had gone to Mecca.

- Al-Nahayah fi Qarib al-Asar Ibn Asir , vol. 5 , p. 79 , - Lesan al-Arab , vol. 11 , p. 670 , - Taj al-Arous , vol. 31 , p. 14 .

3- Ali (AS) wrote a letter to Aisha that “You left your house and suppose that you are renovating among Muslims and imagine you are avenging Othman’s blood. You used to rebel people against him until a short while ago (while he was alive and in power) and used to say among companions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) that “Kill Na’thal. May God kill him”. How is it that today you seek his revenge? Fear God and go back to your house. Cover yourself (with hijab) before God reveals your true self.

There is no power but from God, the Almighty”.

- Al-Sirah al-Halabia , vol. 3 , p. 356 .

Not prohibiting from cursing Othman:

Some people cursed Othman in presence of Aisha, but she did not react against that (and did not stop them from doing so):

It is quoted from Abu Said that some people were standing next to Aisha’s tent. At this moment Othman passed by. All of them except for me insulted or cursed him. One of them (who cursed Othman) was from Kufa and Othman reacted against him and told him “You, who are from Kufa! Come to Medina if you dare so!” and threatened him in this way!!!

- Musnaf Ibn Abi Shaibah , vol. 6 , p. 196 , No. 30628 and vol. 7 , p. 518 , No. 37684 .

Cursing Muawiya and Amro Ibne Aas

Ibne Jarir and some others said that Muhammad Ibne Abi Bakr insulted Muawiya Ibne Khadij, Amro Ibne Al Aas, Muawiya Ibne Abu Sufyan, and Othman Ibne Afwan. At this moment, Muawiya Ibne Khadij got angry and attacked him and killed him. Then put his corpse inside skin of a donkey and burned him.

When Aisha heard of it, she got really sad … and after every salat, she used to curse Muawiya and Amro Ibne Aas.

- Al-Badayah va al-Nahayah , vol. 7 , p. 315 , - al-Montazam , vol. 5 , p. 151 , - Tarikh al-Tabari , vol. 3 , p. 132 .

Its evidences

Heithami, in Majma’ Al Zawaid, writes about this tradition:

This tradition is quoted by Tabarani in summary and completely and it has several references that some of them are the same as references of Ahmad Ibne Hanbal and its narrators are reliable.

- Majmah al-Zavaed , vol. 9 , p. 294 .

Other evidences

- Tafsir Maghatel ibn Suleiman vol. 1 , p. 237 , - Tafsir by al-Tabari , vol. 5 , p. 148 , - Tafsir by Ibn Abi Hatam , vol. 3 , p. 988 , No. 5531 and p. 989 , No. 5540 , - Tafsir by al-Salabi , vol. 3 , p. 335 , - al-Muharrar al-vajiz fi Tafsir al-ketab al-Aziz , vol. 2 , p. 71 , - Tafsir al-Bahr va al-Mohit , vol. 3 , p. 290 , - Tafsir by Ibn Kasir , vol. 1 , p. 519 , - Tafsir by al-Thaalbi , vol. 3 , p. 335 , - al-Dur al-Mansor , vol. 2 , p. 573 , - Roh al-Mahani , vol. 5 , p. 65 , - sharh Moshkel al-Asar Tahawi , vol. 8 , p. 271 , chapter بَيَانُ مُشْكِلِ ما رُوِيَ عن رسول اللهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فِيمَا كان من عَمَّارِ بن يَاسِرٍ وَمِنْ خَالِدِ بن الْوَلِيدِ    - al-Mahjam al-Kabir Tabarani , vol. 4 , p. 112 , No. 3830 to 3834 , chapter مَالِكُ بن الْحَارِثِ بن الأَشْتَرِ عن خَالِدِ بن الْوَلِيدِ  - Musnad al-Tialasi , vol. 1 , p. 158 , No. 1156 , chapter Ahadith Khaled ibn al-Walid ( May God be well pleased with him ), - al-Ajaeb fi Bayan al-Asbab , vol. 2 , p. 897 , - Jameh al-Ahadith Suyuti , vol. 19 , p. 402 , No. 14909 to 14912  and vol. 21 , p. 57 , No. 18338 to 18341 , - kanz al-Ahmal , vol. 13 , p. 228 , No. 37388 to 37391 , - al-sirah al-Halabia , vol. 2 , p. 265 , - al-Tarikh al-Kabir Bukhari , vol. 3 , p. 136 , No. 461 , - Fazael al-sahabah by Nisaei , vol. 1 , p. 49 , No. 164 , and p. 50 , No. 166 , 167 Ammar ibn Yaser , - sunnan al-Nisaei al-Kubra , vol. 5 , p. 74 , No. 8271 and 8272 , - al-Mostadrak alal – sahihain , vol. 3 , p. 439 , No. 5667 and p. 440 , No. 5673 and p. 441 , No. 5675 .

A special curse upon Amro Ibne Aas

It is quoted from Masruq that “One day Aisha told me ‘One night I dreamed that I was standing over a hill top and many cows are being sacrificed around me’!

I told her ‘If your dream is true, many people will be killed around you’.

Aisha said ‘I seek refuge to Allah from you. What a bad word you uttered’.

I told her ‘Perhaps something is going to happen that you are not happy with that’.

She replied ‘If I fall from the sky to the Earth, it is better for me than that’.

After a while, I was with her that it was said that Ali (AS) has killed Zu Al Thadiya (head of Khawarij). Aisha told me ‘Tell me the name of the famous people of Kufa who had witnessed this matter when you went to Kufa’.   

When I went to Kufa, I found people in different groups and of different thoughts. So, I wrote name of ten people from each group who witnessed this matter. I told her that they swore over that.

Aisha said ‘God curse Amro Ibne Al Aas! He made me to think that Zu Al Thadiya is killed in Egypt!’”

This tradition is true and has standards of Bukhari and Muslim, but it is not mentioned in the Sahihs!

- Al-Mostadrak alal – Sahihain , vol. 4 , p. 14 , No. 6744 , by Muhammad ibn Abdullah Abu Abdullah al-Hakim al-Neishaburi , ( died : 405 A.H ) , Publisher : Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Beirut – 1411 A.H. – 1990 A.D , Edition : first , research by Mustafa Abdul Qader Ata .

This tradition is also quoted by Zahabi with some minor changes to hide the case of curse. It reads:

... فكتبت لها من كل شيعة عشرة فأتيتها بشهادتهم فقالت لعن الله عمرا فإنه زعم أنه قتله بمصر

- Sayr Ahlam al-Nebla , vol. 2 , p. 200 , by Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Ottoman ibn Qaimaz al-Zahabi Abu Abdullah , ( died : 748 A.H ) , Publisher : institute of al-Resala – Beirut – 1413 A.H. , Edition : 9th , research by Shoaib al-Arnoot , Muhammad Nahim al-Arqesosi .

Ibne Abi Al Hadid narrates this hadith and talks about reason of Amro Ibne Al Aas’s lie:

In Madaini’s Seffein, it is quoted from Masruq that “When Aisha was informed that Ali (AS) has killed Zu Al Thadiya, she told me ‘God curse Amro Ibne Al Aas. That is because he wrote a letter to me and told me that Zu Al Thadiya has been killed in Alexandria.

What I have in my heart about Ali (AS) cannot prevent me from telling what I heard the Holy Prophet (PBUH) said. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said ‘The best of people after me will kill Zu Al Thawiya’”.

- Sharh Nahjol – Balaghah , vol. 2 , p. 157 , by Abu Hamed Izz al-Din ibn Hobullah ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Abi al-Hadid al-Madaeni , ( died 655 A.H ) , publisher : Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Beirut / Lebanon – 1418 A.H. – 1998 A.D , Edition : first ,research by Muhammad Abdul karim al-Nimri .

Cursing Muhammad Ibne Abibakr for killing Othman

Bukhari writes in his Tarikh:

I went to Aisha and said “What for Commander of believers, Othman, was killed?”

She said “He was killed innocently. May God curse his murderers. God curse son of Abubakr, God curse Aain Ibne Bani Tamim. God kill the two sons of Badil. God curse Malik Ashtar”.

The narrator says “All curses of Aisha about all these people came true. Muhammad Ibne Abi Bakr was killed. A person went to Aain Bani Tamim and killed him. And two sons of Badil were also killed. Malik Ashtar was poisoned when he was going to Sham”.

- Al-Tarikh al-Saghir , ( al-Awsat ) , vol. 1 , p. 95 , No. 384 , by Muhammad ibn Ibrahim ibn Ismail Abu Abdullah al-Bukhari al-Jafi , ( died 256 A.H ) , Publisher : Dar al-Wahy , Maktabah Dar al-Tras – Halab , Cairo – 1397 A.H. – 1977 A.D , Edition : first , research by Mahmoud Ibrahim Zayed .

The same tradition with minor changes could be seen in the following:

- Akhbar al-Medina (the history of the holy medina), vol. 2, p. 265, No. 2201, author name: Abu Zeid Umar ibn Shebha al-Numeiri al-Basri , ( died : 262 A.H. ) Dar al-Nashr : Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Beirut – 1417 A.H – 1996 A.D , Research by Ali Muhammad Dandel and Yasin Saad al-Din Bayan .

- Al-Aqd al-Farid , vol. 4 , p. 276 , by Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Abd Ryah al-Andulasi , ( died : 328 A.H ) , Publisher : Dar Ahya al-Tras al-Arabi – Beirut / Lebanon – 1420 A.H. – 1999 A.D , Edition : third .

- Al-Mahjam al-kabir , vol. 1 , p. 88 , No. 133 , by Suleiman ibn Ahmad ibn Jacob Abu al-Qasim al-Tabarani , ( died : 360 A.H ) , Publisher : Maktabah al-Zahra – Mosel – 1404 A.H. – 1983 A.D , Edition : second , research by Hamdi ibn Abdul Majid al-Salafi .

- Al-Imam va al-Rad Ali al-Rafeza , vol. 1 , p. 330 , No. 141 – 41 - , by Abu Nahim al-Asbahani , ( died : 430 A.H ) , Publisher : Maktabah al-uloom va al-Hakm – al-Medina al-Monovarah / Saudi – 1415 A.H. – 1994 A.D , Edition : third , research by Dr. Ali Ibn Muhammad ibn Nasser al-Faqihi .

6- Cursing Abdullah Ibne Hamar, the Companion, for Drinking Wine by another Companion

It is quoted from Omar that a person who was named Abdullah was living at the time of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and his nickname was Hamar. He used to make the Holy Prophet (PBUH) happy (with some funny actions like a clown). The Holy Prophet (PBUH) whipped him for drinking wine. One day they took him and ordered to whip him. So, someone said “May God curse him. How drunk he is!”

- Sahih al-Bukhari , vol. 6 , p. 2489 , No. 6398 , chapter :  ما يكره من لعن شارب الخمر وإنه ليس بخارج من الملة  

 

 

 

 

Companions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) Insulting Other Companions

We mentioned that according to Sunnis’ references, many of companions cursed each other! It was also mentioned that, according to Sunni books, they even insulted each other. This is despite many much traditions from the Holy Prophet (PBUH) that blamed insulting and many traditions in Sunni books that insulting companions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) means blasphemy.

Here is a list of these companions:

1- Companions who were insulted by Imam Ali (AS) according to Sunni references

Othman Ibne Afwan, Said Ibne Al Aas, Abbas, the uncle of the Holy Prophet (PBUH), Muhammad Ibne Talha Ibne Ubeid Allah

2- Companions who were insulted by Imam Hussein (AS)

Marwan Ibne Hakam, his father, and his tribe

3- Companions who were insulted by Abubakr

Imam Ali (AS), one of companions who insulted Abubakr

4- Companions who were insulted by Omar

Khalid Ibne Walid, Abu Harira, Sad Ibne Ibada, Hatib Ibne Abi Baltaa, Abu Hazifa, Zul Khawisara, Abdullah Ibne Abi

5- Companions who were insulted by Othman

Imam Ali (AS), Aisha and Hafse (wives of the Holy Prophet (PBUH))

6- Companions who were insulted by Aisha

Imam Ali (AS), Zeinab Bint Jahsh (wife of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)), Ahle Bait, Safiya (wife of the Holy Prophet (PBUH))

7- Companions who were insulted by Ammar Yasir

Othman, Khalid Ibne Walid

8- Companions who were insulted by Khalid Ibne Walid

Ammar Yasir, Abdul Rahman Ibne Awf

9- Amro Ibne Aas and Abu Musa Ashari insulting each other

10- Sad Ibne Maaza and Sad Ibne Ibada insulting each other

11- Abdullah Ibne Abi Hadrad (Aslami) and another companion (from among Ansar) insulting each other

12- One of companions insulting Waraqa Ibne Nufel and brother of Waraqa insulted him

13- Walid Ibne Aqaba insulted Bani Abdul Mutallib (which also includes the Holy Prophet (PBUH))

14- Hazifa Ibne Yaman called Abu Musa Ashari hypocrite!

15- Ubeidullah Ibne Omar insulted Miqdad

16- Abuzar insulted one of companions

17- Abu Harira insulted Marwan

18- Umme Musattah insulted her son Musattah (a companion in the War of Badr)

19- Ibne Abbas insulted Amro Ibne Aas

20- Some companions insulted Malik Ibne Al Dakhshan (a companion in the War of Badr)

21- The companions insulting each other in presence of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)

A- Two companions from Habashe and Nabt

B- Two companions in front of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)

C- A companion from Abdullah Ibne Abi’s tribe and another from among Ansar

D- Two companions from Ows and Khazraj

E- One of companions insulting Abubakr

Of course, there are several other examples that will be mentioned in the following chapters.

1- Companions Who Were Insulted by Imam Ali (AS)

They include: Othman Ibne Afwan, Said Ibne Al Aas, Abbas (uncle of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)), and Muhammad Ibne Talha Ibne Ubaid Allah

Othman Ibne Afwan

Imam Ali (AS) and Othman insulting each other

It is quoted from Said Ibne Musayyib that “one day I saw Imam Ali (AS) and Othman while they were insulting each other so boldly that I have never heard such a quarrel before. I would tell you what I heard on that day if I had told anyone about that”. Then he said “But another day, I saw them sitting in the mosque and laughing with each other”.

- Al-Amali fi Asar al-Sahabah Abdul Razzaq , vol. 1 , p. 70 , No. 91 .

Imam Ali (AS): Othman is Na’thal (a Jew man) and Said Ibne Al Aas is naughty

Majeshun narrated that Umme Habiba (wife of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)) went to Imam Ali (As) during the blockade of Othman while he was speaking to people in the mosque. She said to Imam Ali (AS) “Forgive those who are in Othman’s house because of me”. Imam Ali (AS) replied “All are free except for Na’thal (old Jew which referred to Othman) and the naughty (which referred to Said Ibne Al Aas)”.

Umme Habiba said “What I mean are those two”. Imam Ali (AS) replied “You cannot free those two”…

- Akhbar Medina, vol. 2 p. 219 No. 2019.

Said Ibne Al Aas

In the previous part, this tradition was mentioned that Imam Ali (AS) called Said Ibne Al Aas naughty!

Majeshun narrated that Umme Habiba (wife of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)) went to Imam Ali (As) during the blockade of Othman while he was speaking to people in the mosque. She said to Imam Ali (AS) “Forgive those who are in Othman’s house because of me”. Imam Ali (AS) replied “All are free except for Na’thal (old Jew which referred to Othman) and the naughty (which referred to Said Ibne Al Aas)”.

Umme Habiba said “What I mean are those two”. Imam Ali (AS) replied “You cannot free those two”…

Abbas, the uncle of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)!

According to Bukhari’s tradition in Sahih, he and Imam Ali (AS) had insulted each other!

Malik Ibne Aws says:

I was with Omar that a guard came to him and said “Do you let Othman, Abdul Rahman, Zubair, and Sad in?” He replied “Yes!”

They came in, saluted, and sat down. Then the guard came in and said “Do you let Ali (AS) and Ibne Abbas in?” He allowed those two to come in.

Abbas said “You, Commander of believers! You should judge between me and this oppressor (Ali Ibne Abi Talib)” and then they started to insult each other.

The attendants (Othman and his people) said “May the Commander of Believers rule between these two and release them from one another”.

- Sahih Bukhari , vol. 6 , p. 2663 , No. 6875 , By Muhammad ibn Ismail Abu Abdullah al-Bukhari al-Jafi , ( died 256 A.H ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar Ibn kasir , al-Yamama – Beirut – 1407 A.H. – 1987 A.D. , al-Tabaha : 3 , research by Dr. Mustafa Dib al-Bagha .

Muhammad Ibne Talha Ibne Ubeid Allah

Masoudi writes about date of death of Othman:

Ali (AS) entered the house and he was very sad. He told his two sons “How is it possible that you two were guarding the house and they could kill the Commander of Believers?” They he slapped Hassan in his face and bit Hussein in his chest. He also insulted Muhammad Ibne Talhe and cursed Abdullah Ibne Zubair”!!!

- Moravej al-ZAhab , vol. 1 , p. 311 , by Abu al-Hassan Ali ibn al-Hussein ibn Ali al-Masoudi , ( died 346 A.H ) , Died : 346 A.H.

Muhammad Ibne Talhe is considered as a companion of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) according to the following references:

- Mahjam al-Sahabah , vol. 3 , p. 18 , No. 960 , by Abdul Baqi ibn Qaneh Abu al-Hussein ( died : 351 A.H. ) , Dar al-Nashr : Maktabah al-GHorba al-Asaryah – al-Medina al-Monavarah – 1418 A.H. , Edition : first , research by Salah ibn salem al- Misrati .

- Mahrefah al-Sahabah , vol. 1 , p. 166 , after No. 633 , author name : by Nahim al-Asbahani , ( died 430 A.H ).

- Asad al-Qabah fi Mahrefah al-Sahabah , vol. 5 , p. 101 , No. 4731 , by Izz al-Din ibn al-Asir Abi al-Hassan Ali ibn Muhammad al-Jazri , ( died : 630 A.H ) , publisher : Dar Ahya al-Tras al-Arabi – Beirut / Lebanon – 1417 A.H. – 1996 A.D , Edition : first , research by Adel Ahmad al-Refaei.

2- Companions Who Were Insulted by Imam Hussein (AS)

Marwan Ibne Hakam, Hakam, and Marwan’s tribe

Marwan Ibne Hakam, his father, and his tribe

1- It is quoted from Abu Yahya who said “I was sitting with Hassan (AS), Hussein (AS), and Marwan and Hussein (AS) was insulting Marwan.

- The history of Islam vol. 5 p. 232, - Sayr Ahlam al-Nebla , vol. 3 , p. 478 , - al-Mahjam al-kabir , vol. 3 , p. 85 , - Majmah al-Zavaed , vol. 10 , p. 72.

2- It is quoted from Umair Ibne Ishaq that “Marwan was our ruler for some years and used to curse Ali (AS) in his speeches. Then he was dismissed and replaced by Said Ibne Al Aas. He was the ruler and he did not curse Ali (AS). Then, he was dismissed and Marwan came to power again and used to insult Ali (AS) again.

People said to Imam Hassan (AS) “Don’t you hear what he is saying?”, but he would not answer.

Hassan Ibne Ali (AS) used to come and sit in the Holy Prophet’s room and remain there until the end of Marwan’s speech in Friday salat every Friday. Then he would go to the mosque, say his salat, and then return to his family.

But Marwan was not happy with it and sent a gift to Hassan!!!

We were sitting with Hassan in his house that we were told “Someone is at the door”. Imam Hassan (AS) let him in. he came in and said “I am here on behalf of governor of Kufa and I have a word for you”!!!

Imam Hassan (AS) said “Bring it on”.

He said “Marwan said whatever he knew (as insult) to your father and you. He said ‘I know you not more than a mule that if asked about his mother, he would introduce her as horse’’!!!

Imam Hassan (AS) told him “I swear to Allah, I will not wipe off your sins by insulting you. And beware that we will meet each other in presence of God. If you told the truth, God will reward you for that and if you told a lie, God will punish you hardly. My grandfather was more respected by God that his grandson be compared to a mule”.

He got out and saw Hussein (AS) in a room. Hussein (AS) asked him about the reason that he came here. He replied “There was a letter which I was meant to deliver”. Imam Hussein (AS) told him “Whether you tell me what you took or I order to bit you so hard that you wait for its end”.

When Hassan (AS) saw them, he said “Let him go”.

Hussein (AS) said “I can’t”. Hassan (AS) said “Why?” Hussein (AS) said “Because I took an oath”. That man said “Marwan insulted Ali and you hardly” and said what he was supposed to transfer.

Hussein (AS) said “Your mother’s curse upon you if you do not tell him ‘Whatever you said upon you, your father, and your tribe’. And also tell him that I am true and its sign is that your shoulders are paralyzed due to the curse of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)”.

- Al-Mataleb al-Alyah , vol. 18 , p. 267 , No. 4457 , - the history of Islam Zahabi , vol. 5 , p. 231 .

3- Hussein (AS) used to insult Marwan from the time that he would go on the pulpit until the time he would come down.

- Sayr Ahlam al-Nebla , vol. 4 , p. 407 .

3- Companions Who Were Cursed by Abubakr

Imam Ali (AS)

Abu Hilal Hassan Ibne Abdullah Ibne Sahl Askari in Jumhira Al Amthal quotes some tough and vulgar words from Abubakr. But he does not say who is addressed by Abubakr. Of course, the text of tradition clearly shows that he is addressing someone who was a companion of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) who was possibly a candidate of being Khalifa and was aided by a woman.

You people! What does it mean to listen to what women say in this case?!

Why didn’t they have such claims at the time of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)?

All people should ask why your witnesses are all from your own side! He caused all these seductions. He is a mutton dresses as a lamb. He asks for help of women and the poor; help of some people such as Umme Tahal (a famous woman during the period before Islam) whose best friend was adultery!

- Jomhorah al-Amsal , vol. 1 , p. 130 , and p. 554 , by Abu Helal al-Hassan ibn Abdullah ibn Sahl ibn Saeid ibn Yahya ibn Mehran al-Askari ( died : about 395 A.H ) , Died : 395 A.H.

Abu Hilal Askari’s translation

Zahabi writes in Tarikh Al Islam:

Abu Hilal Askari, Hassan Ibne Abdullah Ibne Sahl Ibne Said Ibne Yahya Ibne Mehran (the linguist, literary figure, and author of several literary books) says “I asked Abu Muzaffar Abiwerdi about him”. He saluted him and introduced him as scientist and chaste at the same time.

- Tarikh al-Islam va vafyat al-Mashahir va al-Ahlam Tar vol. 28 p. 512, author name: Shamsuddin Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Osman al-Zahabi , ( died 748 A.H ) , Publisher : Dar al-ketab al-Arabi – Lebanon / Beirut – 1407 A.H. – 1987 A.D , Edition : first , research by Dr. Umar Abdul Salam Tadmouri .

Quotation of the tradition by Ibne Abi Al Hadid

Ibne Abi Al Hadid has this tradition in Sharh Al Nahj Al Bilaqa and mentions that Abubakr had addressed Imam Ali (AS):

When Abubakr heard Fateme’s speech, he could not tolerate her words and said “You, people! What does it mean to listen to whatever every woman says?”

Why didn’t they have such claims at the lifetime of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)?

All people should ask why your witnesses are all from your own side! He caused all these seductions. He is a mutton dresses as a lamb. He asks for help of women and the poor; help of some people such as Umme Tahal (a famous woman during the period before Islam) whose best friend was adultery!

Then he descended the pulpit and Fateme Zahra (AS) went home.

I read this tradition to Naqib Abi Yahya Jafar Ibne Yahya and asked about the addressee of his speech.

He said “It is no quip. He spoke directly and to the point”.

I said “If it was to the point, I would not ask you”!

He laughed and said “Ali Ibne Abi Talib (AS)”.

I said “All these words were toward Imam Ali (AS)?”

He replied “Yes, my son! This is all about power”.

- Sharh Nahjol – Balaghah , vol. 16 , p. 126 , by Abu Hamed Izz al-Din ibn Hobullah ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Abi al-Hadid al-Madaeni , ( died 655 A.H ) , publisher : Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Beirut / Lebanon – 1418 A.H. – 1998 A.D , Edition : first ,research by Muhammad Abdul karim al-Nimri .

One of companions who insulted Abubakr

It is quoted from Abu Harira that while the Holy Prophet (PBUH) was sitting, a person insulted Abubakr. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) was looking happily. When Abubakr’s patience reached its end and he got angry, Abubakr insulted that person back. At this moment, the Holy Prophet (PBUH) got angry and stood up. So, Abubakr followed him and said “You, Messegner of God! He was insulting me and you were seated. But I used some of his own words against him and you got angry and left?”

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) replied “There was an angel with you that when that man was insulting you, he would return his insults to him. But when you started to insult that person, Satan interfered (and that angel was replaced by Satan) and I may not sit somewhere that Satan is in there”.

Heithami writes about this tradition:

This tradition is quoted by Ahmad Ibne Hanbal and Tabarani in Al Mujam Al Awsat and narrators of Ahmad Ibne Hanbal are all narrators of the Sahihs.

- Majmah al-Zavaed , vol. 8 , p. 190 .

References for this tradition and other tradition with similar content

- Sunnan Abi Davoud , vol. 4 , p. 436 , No. 4896 and 4897 , chapter في الإنتصار   - Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal , vol. 2 , p. 436 , No. 9622 , - Musnad al-Bazzar , vol. 15 , p. 157 , No. 8495 , - al-Mahjam al-Awsat , vol. 7 , p. 189 , No. 7239 , - Ehteqad Ahl Sunnah al-Lalkaei , vol. 7 , p. 1257 , No. 2369 , - Tafsir by al-Salabi vol. 3 , p. 167 , - Shoab al-Iman Baihaqi , vol. 5 , p. 284 , No. 6669 , - al-Adab by Baihaqi , vol. 1 , p. 160 , - book al-Asma al-Mobhamah , vol. 3 , p. 164 , - al-Riyadh al-Nazarah , vol. 2 , p. 152 , No. 626 and 627 , - Tafsir by al-Thaalbi , vol. 3 , p. 167 , - al-Dur al-Mansor , vol. 7 , p. 360 , …

4- Companions Who Were Insulted by Omar

Khalid Ibne Walid is enemy of God!

Khalid (when he was returning from the murder of Malik Ibne Nawira) went to Abubakr. Then Omar told him “You are enemy of God. You killed a Muslim man and lied with his wife. You must be stoned”.

- Asad al-Qabah , vol. 4 , p. 296 , - the history of Islam Zahabi , vol. 3 , p. 36 .

There is an explicit article about his meeting with Omar in the following link: http://www.valiasr-aj.com/fa/page.php?bank=maghalat&id=100

Abu Harira; enemy of God and Quran

Omar tells Abu Harira:

You are enemy of God and the Holy Quran! You steal what belongs to Allah?

- Al-kamel , by Ibn al-Asir , incidents 23 A.H. and al-Tabaqat al-kubra , Ibn Saad , vol. 4 , p. 335 and …

To Abu Harira: Your mother had shitted you for treating animals!

Ibne Abd Rabbih writes:

Omar said “If this belonged to you, you must have earned it in a true way and would do it on your own willingness (and not because of my obligation). Did you come here from the farthest point of Bahrain (and became Muslim) to get people’s charity? Neither God nor his creatures are happy with that. Amima, your mother, gave birth to you only for grazing the donkeys”.

- Aqd al-Farid , vol. 1 , p. 13 ,  chapter ما يؤخذ السلطان من الحزم

Sad Ibne Ibada is a hypocrite!

When Sad was being trampled, some cried out “You are killing him”. Omar said “May God kill him. He is a hypocrite!!!”

- Tarikh al-Tabari , vol. 2 , p. 460 .

Similar to this tradition can be seen in the following:

- Al-Nasaeh al-kafia by Muhammad ibn Aqil , p. 173 , - Sharh Nahjol – Balaghah , vol. 20 , p. 21 , - al-Aqd al-Farid , vol. 3 , p. 62 .

Hatib Ibne Abi Baltaa (companion in war of Badr) is a hypocrite!

Ubeid Allah Ibne Abi Rafi’ quoted Imam Ali (AS) who said “The Holy Prophet (PBUH) sent Zubair, Meqdad, and I to a garden to get a letter from a woman who was in that garden. We went there rapidly and found that woman there. We told her ‘Give us your letter’. She replied ‘I have no letter with me’. We told her ‘Whether you give us the letter voluntarily or we will undress you (to look for the letter)’. She took the letter from aming her hair.

We took the letter to the Holy Prophet (PBUH). The letter was from Hatib Ibne Abi Baltaa to a group of blasphemers of Mecca. In it, he informed them of some works of the Holy Prophet (PBUH). The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said to Hatib ‘What is this?’ he replied ‘You, Messenger of Allah! Do not judge me rapidly. I am a person who has married a girl from Quraish and I am not a member of them. Those companions who migrated with you have some relatives in Mecca to look after their assets in Mecca. I, too, would very much like to have someone in Mecca to look after my assets in there. I did not do it with purpose of blasphemy, excommunication, or will of turning from Islam”.

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said ‘He told the truth’.

Omar said to the Holy Prophet (PBUH) ‘Let me behead this hypocrite’.

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said ‘What do you know? He was present in the war of Badr. Let us hope that God mercies the warriors of the War of Badr and has said that he would forgive all their sins’”.

- Sahih Bukhari , vol. 3 , p. 1095 , No. 2845 , and vol. 4 , p. 1557 , No. 4025 , By Muhammad ibn Ismail Abu Abdullah al-Bukhari al-Jafi , ( died 256 A.H ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar Ibn kasir , al-Yamama – Beirut – 1407 A.H. – 1987 A.D. , al-Tabaha : 3 , research by Dr. Mustafa Dib al-Bagha .

- Sahih Moslim , vol. 4 , p. 1941 , No. 2494 , chapter  من فَضَائِلِ أَهْلِ بَدْرٍ رضي الله عَنْهُمْ وَقِصَّةِ حَاطِبِ بن أبي بَلْتَعَةَ،; by Moslim ibn al-Hajjaj Abu al-Hussein al-Qushairi al-Neishaburi , ( died 261 A.H. ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar Ahya al-Tras al-Arabi – Beirut , research by Muhammad Fouad Abdul Baqi .

Sunnis’ justifications for this tradition

Beihaqi writes in justification of what Omar did:

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) did not criticize Omar for introducing Hatib as hypocrite. That was because what he did was an apparent sign of hypocrisy. The one Muslim who calls another one a hypocrite without any evidence is to be excommunicated.

- Sunnan al-Baihaqi al-kubra , vol. 10 , p. 208 , by Ahmad ibn al-Hussein ibn Ali ibn Musa Abu Bakr al-Baihaqi , ( died 458 A.H ) , publisher : Maktabah : Dar al-Baz – Holy Mecca – 1414 A.H. – 1994 A.D. , Research : Muhammad Abdul Qader Ata .

Also Ibne Jowzi says:

Omar said “Let me behead this hypocrite”. That is because Omar thought Hatib did this act without any religious justification!

- Zad al-Masir fi Elm al-Tafsir , vol. 8 , p. 234 , by Abdul Rahman ibn Ali ibn Muhammad al-Jozi , ( died 597 A.H ) , Publisher : al-Maktab al-Islami – Beirut – 1404 A.H. , Edition : third .

Abu Hazifa (companion in war of Badr) is a hypocrite!

It is quoted from Ibne Abbas who quoted the Holy Prophet (PBUH) who told his companions “I know some people from Bani Hashim and other groups which were forced to fight against us, while this was not their own will. So, do not kill those from Bani Hashim if you saw one. Also, do not kill Abu Al Bakhtari Ibne Husham if you saw him as well as Abbas Ibne Abdul Mutallib, who was taken to this war by force”.

Ibne Hazifa Ibne Ataba said “Shall our fathers, brothers, children, and relatives die while we may not kill Abbas?! I swear to Allah, if I see him, I will kill him”.

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) heard it. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said to Omar “You, Aba Hafas! (Omar said that it was the first time the Holy Prophet (PBUH) called me with such nickname) should the uncle of a Messenger of God be killed by a sword?” Omar replied “You, Messenger of God! Let me behead him. He has turned hypocrite”

Abu Hazifa said “I still have fear of what I said that day. Perhaps God forgives me by being martyred”. And he was martyred on the war of Yamama!

- Al-Sirah al-Nobovyah by Ibn Hisham , vol. 3 , p. 177 , author name : Abdul Malak ibn Hisham ibn Jacob al-Humairi al-Maharefi Abu Muhammad , ( died 213 A.H ) , Publisher : Dar al-Jil – Beirut – 1411 A.H. , Edition : first , research by Taha Abdul Rahouf Saad .

- Al-Mahrefah va al-Tarikh , vol. 1 , p. 279 , by Abu Yusuf Jacob ibn Sufian al-Fessoa , ( died 277 A.H ) , PUBLISHER : Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Beirut – 1419 A.H. – 1999 A.D , research by khalil al-Mansour .

- Al-Tabaghat al-kubra , vol. 4 , p. 11 , by Muhammad ibn Saad ibn Monih Abu Abdullah al-Basri al-Zahri , ( died 230 A.H ) , publisher : Dar Sader – Beirut .

Zu Al Khawisara (a companion) is a hypocrite!

Muslim narrates in his Sahih:

It is quoted from Jabir Ibne Abdullah that in the way back from Hunain, in Jarana a person went to the Holy Prophet (PBUH) while Bilal had some silver in his pocket and the Holy Prophet (PBUH) was distributing them among people. He said “You, Muhammad! Be just!”

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said “Damn you! If I am not just, then who is?” If I were not just, you were disappointed and had lost”.

Omar said “You, Messenger of God! Let me cut the head of this hypocrite”. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said “No! I do not want people to say that I kill my own companions”.

- Sahih Moslim , vol. 2 , p. 740 , No. 1063 , chapter ذكر الخوارج وصفاتهم; by Moslim ibn al-Hajjaj Abu al-Hussein al-Qushairi al-Neishaburi , ( died 261 A.H. ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar Ahya al-Tras al-Arabi – Beirut , research by Muhammad Fouad Abdul Baqi .

The Holy Prophet (PBUH), in this tradition, introduces this person as his companion, while Omar addresses him as a hypocrite!

In other Sunni books, this person is introduced as Zu Al Khawisara Tamimi:

It is quoted from Abu Said Khedri that one day the Holy Prophet (PBUH) was seated and was distributing some things among people. Zu Al Khawisara from Bani Tamim went to him and said “You, Messenger of God! Be just”. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) replied “Damn you! I am not just, then who is? …”

- Sahih Bukhari , vol. 3 , p. 1321 , No. 3414 , By Muhammad ibn Ismail Abu Abdullah al-Bukhari al-Jafi , ( died 256 A.H ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar Ibn kasir , al-Yamama – Beirut – 1407 A.H. – 1987 A.D. , al-Tabaha : 3 , research by Dr. Mustafa Dib al-Bagha .

Sunni scholars confess that Zu Al Khawisara was a companion

Harqaus Sadi was a companion of the Holy Prophet (PBUH). His name was Zu Al Khawisara Tamimi who had pissed in the Mosque of the Holy Prophet (PBUH). He is the one who said the Holy Prophet (PBUH) when he distributing goods among people “Be just”. And the Holy Prophet (PBUH) told him “Damn you! I am not just, then who is?”

Amali ibn Samaon , vol. 1 , p. 230 , by Ibn Samaon , Abu Al-Hassan Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Ismail ibn Anbas al-Baghdadi , ( died : 388 A.H ) , Died : 387 A.H.

- Hayah al-Haiwan al-kubra , vol. 1 , p. 331 , by kamal al-Din Muhammad ibn Musa ibn Isa al- Demeiri ( died 808 A.H ) , PUBLISHER : Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Beirut / Lebanon – 1412 A.H. – 2003 A.D. , Edition : second , research by Ahmad Hassan Basj .

Zu Al Khawisara Tamimi is considered a companion by Ibne Athir.

- Al- Esabah fi Tamiiz al-Sahabah , Vol. 2 , p. 411 , No. 2452 , by : Ahmad ibn Ali ibn Hajar Abu al-Fazl  al-Asghalani al-Shafei ( died 852 A.H ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar al-Jil – Beirut – 1412 – 1992 , al-Tebaha : 1 , research by : Ali Muhammad al-Bedjaoui .

Tabari considered Harqaus Ibne Zahir as a companion of the Holy Prophet (PBUH).

- Omdah al-Ghari sharh sahih al-Bukhari , vol. 24 , p. 89 , by : Badr al-Din Mahmud ibn Ahmad al-Aini , ( died 855 A.H ) , publisher : Dar Ahya al-Tras al-Arabi – Beirut .

Abdullah Ibne Abi is a hypocrite and evil!

According to Sunni traditions, the Holy Prophet (PBUH) had considered Abdullah Ibne Abi as one of his companions and Omar introduced him as hypocrite and evil!

Bukhari writes in his Sahih:

It is quoted from Jabir Ibne Abdullah that he said “In one of wars, one of Muhajirin had a quarrel with one of Ansar. The Ansar said “You Muhajirin. Come and help me!” and the Muhajir said “You, Ansar! Come and help me”! The Holy Prophet (PBUH) heard it and said “I hear words of the ignorant (the Arabs before rise of Islam)!”

They said the Holy Prophet (PBUH) that two companions of Ansar and Muhajirin have a quarrel with each other.

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said “Leave such matters that they are dirty words!”

Abdullah Ibne Abi heard it. He said “What should not have happened did occur! I swear to Allah! When we return to Medina, the respected people (companions from Medina) will send them (Muhajirin) away from Medina!”

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) was quoted what he said. Omar said “You, Messenger of Allah! Let me cut his head!” The Holy Prophet (PBUH) replied “Leave him alone! People may say Muhammad kills his own companions”.

- Sahih Bukhari , vol. 4 , p. 1861 , No. 4622 , p. 1863 , No. 4624 , By Muhammad ibn Ismail Abu Abdullah al-Bukhari al-Jafi , ( died 256 A.H ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar Ibn kasir , al-Yamama – Beirut – 1407 A.H. – 1987 A.D. , al-Tabaha : 3 , research by Dr. Mustafa Dib al-Bagha .

In another place, this tradition is quoted in the following form:

Abdullah Ibne Abi said “Do they call for help against us? I swear to Allah, when we return to Medina, we will send them away from Medina”!

Omar said “You, Messenger of Allah! Shouldn’t we kill this evil person (Abdullah Ibne Abi)?!”

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said “No! That is because people might say Muhammad kills his own companions!”

- Sahih Bukhari , vol. 3 , p. 1296 , No. 3330 , By Muhammad ibn Ismail Abu Abdullah al-Bukhari al-Jafi , ( died 256 A.H ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar Ibn kasir , al-Yamama – Beirut – 1407 A.H. – 1987 A.D. , al-Tabaha : 3 , research by Dr. Mustafa Dib al-Bagha .

5- Companions Who Were Insulted by Othman

Imam Ali (AS), Aisha and Hafse (wives of the Holy Prophet (PBUH))

Imam Ali (AS)

It is quoted from Said Ibne Musayyib that “one day I saw Imam Ali (AS) and Othman while they were insulting each other so boldly that I have never heard such a quarrel before. I would tell you what I heard on that day if I had told anyone about that”. Then he said “But another day, I saw them sitting in the mosque and laughing with each other”.

- Al-Amali fi Asar al-sahabah Abdul Razzaq , vol. 1 , p. 70 , No. 91 .

Aisha and Hafse, wives of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)

Salat was held and Othman went ahead of others and wanted to start salat. At this time, a woman stood up and said “Listen to me” and she said that people do not follow orders of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and stood against him. Then she was silent and another woman stood up and said the same things. Those two women were Aisha and Hafse. When Othman finished his salat, he said “These two provocative women caused trouble in the salat and if they do not stop acting like that, I will tell them (insult them) whatever I know (of vulgar speaking)”.

- Al-Jameh Muammar bin Rashid , vol. 11 , p. 355 , - Musnaf Abdul Razzaq , vol. 11 , p. 356 .

6- Companions Who Were Insulted by Aisha

Aisha’s silence toward Imam Ali’s being insulted

It is quoted from Ata Ibne Yasar that a person insulted Ali (AS) and Ammar in presence of Aisha. Then Aisha said “About Ali (AS), I tell you nothing, but the Holy Prophet (PBUH) said about Ammar ‘If he is in a dilemma in doing something, he will absolutely choose the best option’”.

- Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal , vol. 6 , p. 113 , No. 24864 .

Her insult toward Zeinab Bint Jahsh (wife of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)) and Ahle Bait

It was said earlier in this article that there are several surprising traditions in Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim that were jealous toward Aisha for the love of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) toward Aisha and they sent Hazrat Zahra (AS) to speak to her father and want him to act justly about all his wives!

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) spoke to Fateme (AS) and convinces her about that issue. Other wives could not easily accept it. So, Zeinab Bint Jahash, one of the Holy Prophet’s wives, went to the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and insulted Aisha in presence of the Holy Prophet (PBUH). At this moment, the Holy Prophet (PBUH) ordered Aisha to insult Zeinab in return of what she said!

When Aisha overcame Zeinab in insulting, the Holy Prophet (PBUH) laughed and said “She is daughter of Abubakr!”

And they sent Zeinab Bint Jahash (the prophet’s wife) to the Holy Prophet (PBUH).

She came to the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and spoke boldly! She said “Your wives ask you to behave them justly” and she spoke loudly! Then she addressed Aisha while she was sitting there and insulted her! She continued to that extend that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) looked at Aisha and said to her “Do you answer her?”

Aisha answered Zeinab’s insults and she was forced to be silent!

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) looked at Aisha and said “She is daughter of Abubakr”!!!

- Sahih Bukhari , vol. 2 , p. 911 , No. 2442 , book al-Habah , chapter : بَعْضٍ بَاب من أَهْدَى إلى صَاحِبِهِ وَتَحَرَّى بَعْضَ نِسَائِهِ دُونَ

The same tradition is mentioned in Sahih Muslim with minor differences:

The wives of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) sent Zeinab, daughter of Hajash, to speak to the Holy Prophet (PBUH). She was respected by the Holy Prophet (PBUH) among them, like me. And I saw none like her in piety, being religious, honesty, kindness, generosity, and humbleness. She was just a little tough and that was temporary.

She asked permission from the Holy Prophet (PBUH) to come in while the Holy Prophet (PBUH) was lying with me under a sheet, as we were when Fateme (AS) wanted to come in. she was let in.

She said “You, Messenger of Allah! Your wives sent me and they ask you toact justly toward Aisha”. And then she insulted me and oppressed me.

I respected the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and was waiting for his beck. Finally, I figured out that he is happy with my taking revenge. When I insulted Zeinab, I did not let her speak and defeated her very fast!

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said “She is daughter of Abubakr” while he was laughing!

- Sahih Moslim , vol. 4 , p. 1891 , No. 2442 , book Fazael al-Sahabah , chapter في فضل عائشه

Ibne Abi Dawoud also quoted this tradition in the following form. He claims that the Holy Prophet (PBUH), expressly, ordered Aisha to insult Zeinab. And Aisha not only insulted Zeinab, but she also insulted the family of Imam Ali (AS)!

Ibne Awn, who is believed by scholars to have contact with Aisha and used to meet her a lot, quoted Aisha who said “One day the Holy Prophet (PBUH) came to me and Zeinab, daughter of Hajash, was with us. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) did something with his hand (that was not appropriate to do in presence of Zeinab) and I informed him of presence of Zeinab and showed her not to do so”.

Zeinab came to Aisha and started to insult her. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) told her to stop, but she did not listen to him and continued what she was doing!!! Then the Holy Prophet (PBUH) told Aisha to insult her back!!! Aisha insulted Zeinab and her insults were stronger (more vulgar) than those of Zeinab!!!

Zeinab went to Ali (AS) and said that Aisha had insulted him and explained what happened. Fateme (AS) went to the Holy Prophet (PBUH). The Holy Prophet (PBUH) told her “I swear to the God of Ka’ba that Aisha is loved by me”! And because of that, Fateme (AS) returned!!!

- Sunnan Abi Davoud , vol. 4 , p. 274 , No. 4898 .

It is clear that this tradition is meant to prove supremacy and virtues of Aisha, but with what criterion and value?!

Aisha insulting Othman Ibne Afwan

Among those who were insulted by Aisha is Othman Ibne Afwan and there are several traditions in Sunni books in this regard:

The first one who called Othman as Na’thal was Aisha.

1- When Aisha was returning from Mecca, in a place named Saraf, she saw Abd Ibne Umme Kalaab. So, she told her “There is important news. Othman is killed”. So, they stayed there for eight days. Aisha asked “What did they do after it?” He replied “They did the best they could do. They gathered around (chose) Ali (AS)”.

Aisha said “I wish people had not paid homage to Ali (AS)! Let us go back”. And they moved back to Mecca. She used to say “Othman was killed innocently!!! I swear to Allah, I will claim his blood!!!”

Then Ibne Umme Kalaab told her “How is it possible? You were the first person who changed his name!!! You were the one who said ‘Kill Na’thal (the stupid, Jew, old man which referred to Othman) who has turned blasphemous’!!!”

Aisha said “He has repented before his death and then he was killed!!! It is true that I had said such words earlier, but my words now are more important!!!”

Then Ibne Umme Kalaab told her “All what happened was because of you and now you want to change the situation. You were responsible for whatever happened. You were the one who ordered the murder of the leader. You told us that he is blasphemous. So, we followed you in killing him. And murderer is the one who ordered it. And for his death, no sword fell in his revenge nor did any lunar or solar eclipse happen (which is metonymy of Othman’s not being innocent when he was killed”.

- Al-Fetnah va Waqeha al-Jomal , vol. 1 , p. 115 , - al-Imama va al-Syasah , vol. 1 , p. 48 , - Tarikh al-Tabari , vol. 3 , p. 12 , - al-kamel fi Tarikh , vol. 3 , p. 100 , - Tarikh Mukhtasar al-Doval , vol. 1 , p. 55 , - al-Fakhri fi al-Adab al-sultania , vol. 1 , p. 29 .

2- The first person who called Othman as Na’thal (the old, stupid, Jew man) was Aisha.

- Sharh Nahjol – Balaghah , vol. 6 , p. 131 .

Othman was Na’thal before being killed and after his death, he was oppressed!

1- Othman delayed paying the monthly (money that Aisha used to receive) of Aisha. She got angry and said “You, Othman! You betrayed those who trusted you and annoyed people …”

Othman told her “God introduced wife of Noah and wife of Lut as two examples for blasphemous (and you are like the two who were wives of prophets).

Because of that, Aisha opposed Othman strongly and used to say “You, people! This is the Holy Prophet’s dress which is not still so much old. But see how tradition of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) is outdated (and Khalifa does not follow tradition of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)). Kill Na’thal (meaning an old Jew and here refers to Othman) and May God kill him!”

Aisha went to Mecca. When she was done with her hajj, she heard that Othman is killed. She asked “What happened then?” They told her “People paid homage to Ali (AS)!!!”

Then Aisha said “I swear to Allah that Othman was killed while he was oppressed. I swear to Allah that I will seek his revenge. One day of Othman’s life was better than the whole life!!!”

- Al-Mahsoul Razi , vol. 4 , p. 492 .

2- It is among the words of Aisha that used to say “Kill Na’thal. May God kill him”. And she meant Othman. This was the time when she was angry with Othman and had gone to Mecca.

- Al-Nahayah fi Qarib al-Asar ibn Asir , vol. 5 , p. 79 , - Lesan al-Arab , vol. 11 , p. 670 , - Taj al-Arous , vol. 31 , p. 14 .

3- Umme Salame told Aisha “Until a while ago, you used to invite people to fight against Othman and used to call him Na’thal and said the worst words about him!!!”

- Sharh Nahjol – Balaghah , vol. 6 , p. 131 .

4- Ali (AS) wrote a letter to Aisha that “You left your house and suppose that you are renovating among Muslims and imagine you are avenging Othman’s blood. You used to rebel people against him until a short while ago (while he was alive and in power) and used to say among companions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) that “Kill Na’thal. May God kill him”. How is it that today you seek his revenge? Fear God and go back to your house. Cover yourself (with hijab) before God reveals your true self.

There is no power but from God, the Almighty”.

- Al-sirah al-Halabia , vol. 3 , p. 356 .

Aisha’s silence toward insults to Othman

Some people cursed Othman in presence of Aisha, but she did not react against that (and did not stop them from doing so):

It is quoted from Abu Said that some people were standing next to Aisha’s tent. At this moment Othman passed by. All of them except for me insulted or cursed him. One of them (who cursed Othman) was from Kufa and Othman reacted against him and told him “You, who are from Kufa! Come to Medina if you dare so!” and threatened him in this way!!!

- Musnaf Ibn Abi Shaibah , vol. 6 , p. 196 , No.  30628 and vol. 7 , p. 518 , 518 , No. 37684 .

Aisha’s insult to Safiya (wife of the Holy Prophet (PBUH))

Aisha said “I insulted Safiya and Safiya insulted me. I insulted his father and she insulted my father! The Holy Prophet (PBUH) heard it and said ‘You, Safiya! Did you insult Abubakr?’”

- Al-Tabaqat al-kubra , vol. 8 , p. 80 , by Muhammad ibn Saad ibn Monih Abu Abdullah al-Basri al-Zahri , ( died 230 A.H ) , publisher : Dar Sader – Beirut .

7- Companions Who Were Insulted by Ammar Yasir

This group of companions include: Othman, Khalid Ibne Walid
 

Othman

Ammar was among the people who used to address Othman as Na’thal (the stupid, Jew, old man)!

Abu Al Qadiya (a companion of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and one of murderers of Ammar) said “We considered Ammar Yasir as a good servant of God until the day when we were sitting in the mosque of Quba where Ammar called Othman as Na’thal. So, I look for someone to help me trample him to death!!!”

- Al-Tabaqat al-kubra , vol. 3 , p. 260 , - al-Maharef Ibn Qutaibah , vol. 1 , p. 257 , - Ansab al-Ashraf , vol. 1 , p. 75 and p. 238 , - al-Mehn , vol. 1 , p. 116, - the history of the city of Damascus , vol. 39 , p. 429 .

Khalid Ibne Walid

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) sent a group to war which was led by Khalid Ibne Walid. Among them, Ammar Yassir was present, too. When they were close to the target they slowed down and a spy went to them and informed them of the coming attack. All people fled in the morning except for a man and his family. So, that man came to the camp and found Ammar and said to him “I am a Muslim now. I testify that Allah is unique and Muhammad is his Messenger. Truly, when my tribe was informed of your attack, they all fled, but I did not escape. Is it enough that I am a Muslim? Will it be useful for me or I run away, too?”

Ammar answered “Being Muslim is useful for you. You can stay”. And that man stayed in his town. In the morning, Khalid Ibne Walid ordered the attack, but there were none in the city but that man and his family. So they arrested him and ocuupied his assets. Ammar heard it. He went to Khalid and said to him “Release him since he is Muslim and he is sheltered by me”. Khalid said “Who are you to shelter people?!” So they insulted each other and complained from each other to the Holy Prophet (PBUH).

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) approved this sheltering, but reminded him not to shelter anyone else without the permission of the commnader.

They again insulted each other in presence of the Holy Prophet (PBUH). Khalid said “Do you let this servant insult me?!” The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said “You, Khalid. Do not insult Ammar. Truly the one who insults Ammar has insulted Allah and the one who stands against him has stood agaist God. And the one who curses Ammar will be cursed by Allah”.

Ammar was angry with Kahlid (for his insults) and went away. So, Khalid followed him and took his dress and asked him to excuse and forgive him. In the end, he forgave Kahlid.

- Tafsir by al-Tabari , vol. 5 , p. 148 , - al-Moharrar al-vajiz fi Tafsir al-ketab al-Aziz , vol. 2 , p. 71 , - Tafsir by Ibn kasir , vol. 1 , p. 519 , - Tafsir Maqatel ibn Suleiman , vol. 1 , p. 237 , - Fazael al-Sahabah by Nisaei , vol. 1 , p. 50 , No. 166 , - Sunnan al-Nisaei al-kubra , vol. 5 , p. 74 , No. 8271 , - Tafsir by Ibn Abi Hatam , vol. 3 , p. 990 , - al-Mahjam al-kabir al-Tabarani , vol. 4 , p. 112 , No. 3830 , p. 113 , No. 3834 , - Roh al-Mahani , vol. 5 , p. 65 .

8- Companions Who Were Insulted by Khalid Ibne Walid

Ammar Yasir

In the part about those who were insulted by Ammar, the story of the quarrel between the two was mentioned:

Ammar heard it. He went to Khalid and said to him “Release him since he is Muslim and he is sheltered by me”. Khalid said “Who are you to shelter people?!” So they insulted each other and complained from each other to the Holy Prophet (PBUH).

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) approved this sheltering, but reminded him not to shelter anyone else without the permission of the commnader.

They again insulted each other in presence of the Holy Prophet (PBUH). Khalid said “Do you let this servant insult me?!” The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said “You, Khalid. Do not insult Ammar. Truly the one who insults Ammar has insulted Allah and the one who stands against him has stood agaist God. And the one who curses Ammar will be cursed by Allah”.

Ammar was angry with Kahlid (for his insults) and went away. So, Khalid followed him and took his dress and asked him to excuse and forgive him. In the end, he forgave Kahlid.

- Tafsir by al-Tabari , vol. 5 , p. 148 .

Abdul Rahman Ibne Awf

It is quoted from Abu Said Khedri that Abdul Rahman Ibne Awf and Khalid Ibne Walid argued each other and they insulted each other meanwhile …

- Akhbar Asbahan , vol. 7 , p. 335 , - Tarikh Asbahan , vol. 2 , p. 334 , No. 1169 .

9- Amro Ibne Aas and Abu Musa Ashari Insulting Each Other

Amro Iben Aas said to Abu Musa Ashari “Do you accept that we introduce someone who could lead these people? If you know such a person, introduce him to me and I promise to accept your opinion. If you do not know such a person, so it is an obligation for you to follow my opinion!”

After a short while, they started to insult each other and they both came out. Abu Musa said “I found Amro Aas like the person in whose description the verse ‘Relate to them the story of the man to whom We sent Our signs, but he passed them by: so Satan followed him up, and he went astray’ (Sura Al A’raaf, verse 175) was sent”.     

When he was finished with his speaking, Amro Ibne Aas said “You, people! I found Abu Musa Ashari like the person in whose description the verse ‘The similitude of those who were charged with the (obligations of the) Mosaic Law, but who subsequently failed in those (obligations), is that of a donkey which carries huge tomes (but understands them not).’ (Sura Al Juma, verse 5)” was sent.

- Tarikh Al-Tabari , vol. 3 , p. 106 .

10- Sad Ibne Maaza and Sad Ibne Ibada Insulting Each Other

Sad Ibne Maaza stood up and said “You, Messenger of God! Tell us who he is. If he is from Khazraj, we will kill you and if he is from Aws, we will do whatever you decide about him”. So, Sad Ibne Ibada, who was a good man and was leader of the tribe Aws, got angry and stood up and said “It is not true. I swear to Allah that your enmity toward Aws made you say such words”. Then they started to insult one another …

- Tafsir by al-Samarqandi , vol. 2 , p. 501 .

11- Abdullah Ibne Abi Hadrad (Aslami) and Another Companion (from Among Ansar) Insulting Each Other

It is quoted that Abdullah Ibne Abi Hadrad and a companion from among Ansar insulted one another. He called the Ansari “Jew” and the Ansari called him “desert dweller”. The Ansari went to the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and told him what Aslami told him. Then the Holy Prophet (PBUH) told him “Tell me! Did you tell him anything?” He replied “Yes! The desert dweller!” Then the Holy Prophet (PBUH) said “Neither hs is desert dweller nor you are Jew”.   

- Jameh al-Ahadith Suyuti , vol. 20 , p. 266 , No. 16631 , - the history of the city of Damascus , vol. 27 , p. 343 , - kanz al-Ahmal , vol. 5 , p. 225 , No. 13987 .

12- One of Companions Insulting Waraqa Ibne Nufel and Brother of Waraqa Insulted Him

Brother of Waraqa Ibne Nufel insulted someone and he insulted Waraqa. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) heard it and said to his brother “Don’t you know that Waraqa has a garden or two (in the Paradise)?” And he banned him from insulting Waraqa.

- Sirah Ibn Isaac vol. 2 p. 113 No. 158, - al-Ruz al-Anaf , vol. 1 , p. 411 , - al-Tadvin fi Akhbar Qazvin , vol. 3 , p. 198 , - Asad al-Qabah , vol. 5 , p. 464 , - Tarh al-Tasrib fi sharh al-Taqrib , vol. 1 , p. 103 , - Majmah al-Zavaed , vol. 9 , p. 416 , - al-Esabah fi Tamiiz al-Sahabah , vol. 6 , p. 609 and …

In Asad Al Asad Al Qaba, vol. 5, p 464, number 5450, there are traditions which prove Waraqa Ibne Nufel was a companion.

13- Walid Ibne Aqaba Insulted Bani Abdul Mutallib (Which Also Includes the Holy Prophet (PBUH))

On the fifth day, Abdullah Ibne Abbas went to the battlefield and Walid Ibne Aqaba fought him. They had a very hard fight. At this moment, Walid insulted Bani Abdul Mutallib (which even includes the Holy Prophet (PBUH)).

- Al-kamel fi al-Tarikh , vol. 3 , p. 176 .

14- Hazifa Ibne Yaman Called Abu Musa Ashari Hypocrite!

Shafiq says “We were sitting with Hazifa (who was a companion of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)). Abdullah and Abu Musa (Ashari) entered the mosque. Hazifa said “One of those two is hypocrite”. Then he said “The most similar of people, in behavior, working, and action to the Holy Prophet (PBUH) is Abdullah! (That means Abu Musa Ashari is hypocrite)

- Al-Mahrefah va al-Tarikh , vol. 3 , p. 89 , by Abu Yusuf Jacob ibn Sufian al-Fassoa , ( died : 277 A.H ) , Publisher : Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Beirut – 1419 A.H. – 1999 A.D , Research by khalil al-Mnsour .

15- Ubeidullah Ibne Omar Insulted Miqdad

There was an argument between Ubeidullah Ibne Omar and Miqdad. Ubeidullah insulted Miqdad! … Ubeidullah Ibne Omar insulted Miqdad Ibne Aswas! …

- Sharh Usool Ehteqad Ahl al-sunnah va al-Jamaha menal – ketab va al-sunnah va Ejmah al-Sahabah , ( Sunni belief) , vol. 7 , p. 1263 , No. 2376 and 2377 , by Hobullah ibn al-Hassanibn Mansour al-Lalkaei Abu al-Qasem , ( died 418 A.H ) , Publisher ; Dar Tayyeba – Riyadh – 1402 , research by Dr. Ahmad Saad Hamdan .

- The history of the city of Damascus and zekr Fazloha va Tasmiah mena Haloha Menal – Amasel , vol. 38 , p. 59 , No. 4473 , Obaidullah ibn Umar ibn al-khattab ibn Neville ibn Abdul Uzza Abu Issa al-Adhawi .

-  Mosawi al-Akhlaq , vol. 1 , p 49 , the author 's name: Muhammad ibn Ja 'far al-kharaeti  (died : 327 A.H) Death: 327 A.H.

Translation of Ubeidullah Ibne Omar

Abu Naim Isfahani introduces him as a companion in Marifat Al Sahaba, vol. 4, p 1876, number 1908

Ibne Abd Al Bir in Al Istiab, vol. 3, p 1010, number 1718, introduces him as a companion.

16- Abuzar Insulted One of Companions

It is quoted from Abuzar that “There was an argument between me and another man. His mother was not Arab. I insulted his mother. He spoke to the Holy Prophet (PBUH) about me. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) told me ‘Have you insulted him?’ I said ‘Yes!’ The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said ‘Did you disrespect his mother, too?’ I said ‘Yes!’ The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said ‘You are the person who is still living in the Era of Ignorance (before Islam)’. I said ‘Even now that I am so old!’ He said ‘Yes! They are your brothers who were placed under your command by the will of God’”.

- Sahih Bukhari , vol. 5 , p. 2248 , No. 5703 , chapter : ما ينهي من السباب واللعن

An explanation about this tradition

As it was mentioned earlier, according to Sunni traditions, the Holy Prophet (PBUH) had insulted the blasphemers and had cursed them. So, if Abuzar’s addressee was a pagan, the Holy Prophet (PBUH) might not criticize him. And if he was a Muslim, according the definition of Sunnis, he must have been considered as a companion.

Also, in this tradition, the Holy Prophet (PBUH) introduces the person who Abuzar insulted to as his “brother”. So, this absolutely means that he was Muslim.

17- Abu Harira Insulted Marwan

It is quoted from Said Ibne Musayyib that Abu Harira insulted Marwan. When Marwan gave him some money, he became silent!!!

- The history of the city of Damascus vol. 67, p 374.

18- Umme Musattah Insulted Her Son Musattah (A Companion in the War of Badr)

(In the story of Afak) it is quoted from Aisha that she said “I came across Umme Musattah. Suddenly she could not control herself and fell down. Then she said ‘May God curse Musattah!’ I told her ‘Stop speaking so badly! Do you insult someone who fought in the war of Badr?’”

- Sahih Bukhari , vol. 4 , p. 1475 , No. 3801 , By Muhammad ibn Ismail Abu Abdullah al-Bukhari al-Jafi , ( died 256 A.H ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar Ibn kasir , al-Yamama – Beirut – 1407 A.H. – 1987 A.D. , al-Tabaha : 3 , research by Dr. Mustafa Dib al-Bagha .

Translation of Umme Musattah

Ibne Athir writes about her:

Umme Musattah was daughter of Abi Rihm Ibne Mutallib … she was cousin of Aisha … this is why her name is mentioned in the story of Afak.

- Asad al-Qabah fi Mahrefah al-Sahabah , vol. 7 , p. 431 , No. 7583 , by Izz al-Din ibn al-Asir Abi al-Hassan Ali ibn Muhammad al-Jazri , ( died : 630 A.H ) , publisher : Dar Ahya al-Tras al-Arabi – Beirut / Lebanon – 1417 A.H. – 1996 A.D , Edition : first , research by Adel Ahmad al-Refaei.

19- Ibne Abbas Insulted Amro Ibne Aas

Amro Ibne Aas said … Ibne Abbas said “I swear to Allah that you told a lie. What you said was not true … You are a cheap, wicked, blamed, and empty person!”

- Al-Mahasen va al-Azdad , vol. 1 , p. 101 , by Abu Ottoman Amr ibn Bahr al-Jahez al-Basri , ( died 255 A.H ) , Publisher : Maktabah al-khanji - / Cairo / Egypt – 1415 A.H. – 1994 A.D. , Edition : second , research by : there are no .

20- Some Companions Insulted Malik Ibne Al Dakhshan (A Companion in the War of Badr)

Bukhari writes in his Sahih:

I heard Atban Ibne Malik who said “One morning, the Holy Prophet (PBUH) came to me. A person asked ‘Where is Malik Ibne Dakhshan?’ One of us replied ‘He is hypocrite! God and His Messenger do not like him!’

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said ‘Haven’t you seen him say “There is no God but Allah”?’

They said ‘Yes!’

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said ‘No servant will say this sentence correctly unless the fire of Hell is forbidden for him (and he will not go to the Hell).’”

  - Sahih Bukhari , vol. 6 , p. 2542 , No. 6539 , By Muhammad ibn Ismail Abu Abdullah al-Bukhari al-Jafi , ( died 256 A.H ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar Ibn kasir , al-Yamama – Beirut – 1407 A.H. – 1987 A.D. , al-Tabaha : 3 , research by Dr. Mustafa Dib al-Bagha .

Also Heithami has this tradition in Majma Al Zawaid with minor differences:

It is quoted from Anas that we spoke of Malik Ibne Dakhash in presence of the Holy Prophet (PBUH). Some of those who were there insulted him. They said that he is head of all hypocrites. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said “Leave my companions. Do not insult my companions”. This tradition is narrated by Bizar and its narrators are all narrators of the Sahihs.

-  Majmah al-Zavaed va Manbah al-Favaed , vol. 10 , p. 21 , by Ali ibn Abi Bakr al-Haithami , ( died 807 A.H ) , Publisher : Dar al-Ryan Leltras / Dar al-ketab al-Arabi – Cairo , Beirut – 1407 A.H .

Translation of Malik Ibne Al Dakhsham

Nuwi says about him:

Malik Ibne Al Dakhsham was a companion of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and is also called Dakhshan … he, along with some people from Maqazi and Seir, fought in the war of Badr with the Holy Prophet (PBUH) …

- Tahzib al-Asma va al-Loqat , vol. 2 , p. 388 , No. 544 , by Mohi al-Din ibn sharaf al-Novy , ( died 676 A.H ) , Publisher : Dar al-Fekr – Beirut – 1996 A.D. , Edition : first , research by Maktab al-Bohos va al-Derasat .

21- The Companions Insulting Each Other in Presence of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)

There are several cases in which some companions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) insulted each other or other companions in presence of the Holy Prophet (PBUH), but name of both of the sides or one of them is not mentioned. Here are some of such examples:

A- Two companions from Habashe and Nabt

It is quoted from Anas that two servants, one of whom was from Habasha and the other from Nabt, insulted one another while the Holy Prophet (PBUH) was hearing that. They mocked each other through their origin and nationality.

Then the Holy Prophet (PBUH) said “Do not speak like that to each other. You are two companions of Muhammad!!!”

- Musnad Abi Yali , vol. 7 , p. 171 , No. 4146 , - al-Joharah fi Nasab al-Nabi va Asabah al-Ashrah , vol. 1 , p. 228 , - Majmah al-Zavaed vol. 8 , p. 86 , - al-Mataleb al-Alyah , vol. 11 , p. 376 , No. 2553 .

B- Two companions in front of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)

I heard one of companions named Suleiman Ibne Sard who said “Two people insulted each other in presence of the Holy Prophet (PBUH). One of them was so angry that he turned red! The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said ‘I know a sentence that if he says that, he will calm down’. A man went to him and told him ‘Say “I seek refuge to Allah from the evil of Satan, the cursed”’. He replied ‘Do I have any problems (to say this sentence)? Do I look crazy? Go away’”.

- Sahih al-Bukhari , vol. 5 , p. 2248 , No. 5701 , chapter  ما ينهي من السباب واللعن

C- A companion from Abdullah Ibne Abi’s tribe and another from among Ansar

It is quoted from Mu’tamar who auoted his father who heard Anas said:

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) was asked “Why don’t you go to Abdullah Ibne Abi?” Then, the Holy Prophet (PBUH), who was riding on a donkey, went to his house and other Msulims around the Holy Prophet (PBUH) followed him. It was a salt marsh.

When the Holy Prophet (PBUH) reached him, he told the Holy Prophet (PBUH) “Go away from me. I swear to Allah that your donkey stinks and it annoys me”.

A person from Ansar said “I swear to Allah that smell of donkey of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) is better than your smell”.

Because of this, a person from Abdullah’s tribe got angry and insulted the Ansari …

- Sahih al-Bukhari , vol. 2 , p. 958 , No. 2545 .

Zamakhshari introduces the two. He says that they were Abdullah Ibne Rawaha and Abdullah Ibne Abi, himself:

Abdullah Ibne Abi covered his nose and said “Let you donkey go away. Its stink is annoying me”. Abdullah Ibne Rawah replied “I swear to Allah that smell of urine of this donkey is better than smell of your perfume!”

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) went away and they continued their controversy. Little by little, they started to insult each other.

- Al-keshaf ana Haqaeq al-Tanzil va Ayun al-Aqavil fi vojoh al-Tahvil , vol. 4 , p. 367 , by Abu al-Qasim Mahmoud ibn Umar Zamakhshari al-kharazmi , ( died 538 A.H. ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar Ahya al-Tras al-Arabi – Beirut , research by Abdul Razzaq al-Mehdi .

D- Two companions from Ows and Khazraj

When two people, one from Ows and the other from Khazraj, were sittign with each other and were talking to each other, a Jew joined them and reminded them of the history of relationship between these two tribes and the quarrels between the two. Finally they began to fight and insult each other!!!

Each of them called some people from their tribes and they got armed and stood against each other. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) was in Medina on that day and saw what went on. So, he went to the two groups and spoke to them and asked them to get unarmed.

- Tafsir by al-Sanaani , vol. 1 , p. 128 , - Akhbar al-Medina , vol. 1 , p. 235 , No. 782 , - Tafsir by al-Tabari , vol. 4 , p. 25 , - Tafsir by Ibn Abi Hatam , vol. 3 , p. 719 , - al-Dur al-Mansor , vol. 2 , p. 280 and …

E- One of companions insulting Abubakr

This tradition was mentioned earlier that a person insulted Abubakr in presence of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)!

It is quoted from Abu Harira that a person insulted Abubakr in presence of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and the Holy Prophet (PBUH) was looking happily …

Heithami writes about this tradition:

This tradition is quoted by Ahmad Ibne Hanbal and Tabarani in Al Mujam Al Awsat and narrators of Ahmad Ibne Hanbal are narrators of the two Sahihs.

- Majmah al-Zavaed , vol. 8 , p. 190 .

The evidence of this tradition and other traditions with similar content

Sunan Abi Dawoud, vol. 4, p 436, numbers 4896 and 4897, chapter: victory – Musnad Ahmad Ibne Hanbal, vol. 2, p 436, no. 9622 – Musnad Al Bizar, vol. 15, p 157, no. 8495 – Al Mujam Al Awsat, vol. 7, p 189, no. 7239 – Itiqad Ahl Al Sunna Al Lalkaei, vol. 7, p 1257, no. 2369 – Tafsir Al Thalabi, vol. 3, p 167 – Shuab Al Iman by Beihaqi, vol. 5, p 284, no. 6669 – Al Adab by Beihaqi, vol. 1, p 160 – Kitab Al Asma Al Mubhama, vol. 3, p 164 – Al Riyadh Al Nadhara, vol. 2, p 152, numbers 626 and 627 – Tafsir Al Thalabi, vol. 3, p 167 – Al Dur Al Manthur, vol. 7, p 360, etc.

There are other cases of insulting companions which will be discussed later.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Companions Who Insulted or Cursed Sunni Khalifas

1- Companions Who Insulted Abubakr:

A- Safiya, wife of the Holy Prophet (PBUH), B- One of companions (anonymous)

2- Companions Who Insulted Othman

A- Imam Ali (AS), B- Aisha, C- Muhammad Ibne Abibakr, D- Ammar Ibne Yasir, E- Jabala Ibne Amro Al Ansari, F- Jahjah Al Qaffari

3- Companions Who Insulted or Cursed Muawiya

A- Imam Ali (AS), B- Imam Hassan (AS), C- Ahnaf Ibne Qais, D- Aisha, E- Samra Ibne Jundab, F- Qanima Bint Qanim

1- Companions Who Insulted Abubakr

A- Safiya, wife of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)

Aisha said that “Safiya and I were insulting one another. I insulted her father and she insulted my father. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) heard what she said and said to her ‘You, Safiya! Are you insulting Abubakr?’”

- Al-Tabaqat al-kubra , vol. 8 , p. 80 , by Muhammad ibn Saad ibn Monih Abu Abdullah al-Basri al-Zahri , ( died 230 A.H ) , publisher : Dar Sader – Beirut .

B- One of companions (anonymous)

It is quoted from Abu Harira that a person insulted Abubakr while the Holy Prophet (PBUH) was seated in that group (of people). The Holy Prophet (PBUH) was looking happily …

This tradition is narrated by Ahmad Ibne Hanbal and Tabarani in Al Mujam Al Awsat and narrators of Ahmad Ibne Hanbal’s tradition are narrators which have been referred to in the Sahihs.

- Majmah al-Zavaed , vol. 8 , p. 190 .

Evidences of this tradition and other ones with similar content

- Sunnan Abi Dawoud , vol. 4 , p. 436 , No. 4896 and 4897 , chapter في الإنتصار – Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal , vol. 2 , p. 436 , No. 9622 , - Musnad al-Bazzar , vol. 15 , p. 157 , No. 8495 , - al-Mahjam al-Awsat , vol. 7 , p. 189 , No. 7239 , - Ehteqad Ahl asl-Sunnah al-Lalkaei , vol. 7 , p. 1257 , No. 2369 , - Tafsir by al-Salabi , vol. 3 , p. 167 , - Shoab al-Iman Baihaqi , vol. 5 , p. 284 , No. 6669 , al-Adab by Baihaqi , vol. 1 , p. 160 , - book al-Asma al-Mobhamah , vol. 3 , p. 164 , - al-Riyadh al-Nazarah , vol. 2 , p. 152 , No. 626 and 627 , - Tafsir by al-Thaalbi , vol. 3 , p. 167 , - al-Dur al-Mansor , vol. 7 , p. 360 and …

2- Companions Who Insulted Othman

Imam Ali (AS)

1- In the part about the people who were insulted by Imam Ali (AS), according to Sunni sources, there were two traditions that showed Imam Ali (AS) cursed Othman:

It is quoted from Said Ibne Musayyib that “one day I saw Imam Ali (AS) and Othman while they were insulting each other so boldly that I have never heard such a quarrel before. I would tell you what I heard on that day if I had told anyone about that”. Then he said “But another day, I saw them sitting in the mosque and laughing with each other”.

- Al-Amali fi Asar al-sahabah Abdul Razzaq , vol. 1 , p. 70 , No. 91 .

2- Majeshun narrated that Umme Habiba (wife of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)) went to Imam Ali (As) during the blockade of Othman while he was speaking to people in the mosque. She said to Imam Ali (AS) “Forgive those who are in Othman’s house because of me”. Imam Ali (AS) replied “All are free except for Na’thal (old Jew which referred to Othman) and the naughty (which referred to Said Ibne Al Aas)”.

Umme Habiba said “What I mean are those two”. Imam Ali (AS) replied “You cannot free those two”…

- Akhbar al-Medina vol. 2 p. 219 NO. 2019.

Aisha

Several times in this lecture, Aisha’s curse over Othman was mentioned. Here they are just mentioned again:

The first one who called Othman as Na’thal was Aisha.

1- When Aisha was returning from Mecca, in a place named Saraf, she saw Abd Ibne Umme Kalaab. So, she told her “There is important news. Othman is killed”. So, they stayed there for eight days. Aisha asked “What did they do after it?” He replied “They did the best they could do. They gathered around (chose) Ali (AS)”.

Aisha said “I wish people had not paid homage to Ali (AS)! Let us go back”. And they moved back to Mecca. She used to say “Othman was killed innocently!!! I swear to Allah, I will claim his blood!!!”

Then Ibne Umme Kalaab told her “How is it possible? You were the first person who changed his name!!! You were the one who said ‘Kill Na’thal (the stupid, Jew, old man which referred to Othman) who has turned blasphemous’!!!”

- Al-Fetnah va Waqeha al-Jomal , vol. 1 , p. 115 , - al-Imama va al-Syasah , vol. 1 , p. 48 , - Tarikh al-Tabari , vol. 3 , p. 12 , - al-kamel fi Tarikh , vol. 3 , p. 100 , - Tarikh Mukhtasar al-Doval , vol. 1 , p. 55 , - al-Fakhri fi al-Adab al-sultania , vol. 1 , p. 29 .

2- The first person who named Othman as Na’thal (stupid, Jew, old man) was Aisha.

- Sharh Nahjol – Balaghah , vol. 6 , p. 131 .

Othman was Na’thal before being killed and after his death, he was oppressed!

1- Because of that, Aisha opposed Othman strongly and used to say “You, people! This is the Holy Prophet’s dress which is not still so much old. But see how tradition of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) is outdated (and Khalifa does not follow tradition of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)). Kill Na’thal (meaning an old Jew and here refers to Othman) and May God kill him!” Aisha went to Mecca. When she was done with her hajj, she heard that Othman is killed. She asked “What happened then?” They told her “People paid homage to Ali (AS)!!!” Then Aisha said “I swear to Allah that Othman was killed while he was oppressed. I swear to Allah that I will seek his revenge. One day of Othman’s life was better than the whole life!!!”

- Al-Mahsoul Razi , vol. 4 , p. 492 .

2- This is among words of Aisha that she said “Kill Na’thal. May God kill him”. And she referred to Othman by that. This was the time when she was angry with Othman and had gone to Mecca.

- Al-Nahayah fi Qarib al-Asar ibn Asir , vol. 5 , p. 79 , - Lesan al-Arab , vol. 11 , p. 670 , - Taj al-Arous , vol. 31 , p. 14 .

3- Umme Salame said to Aisha “You invited people to fight against Othman until a short time ago and would call him names and to you, he was Na’thal”!!!

- Sharh Nahjol – Balaghah , vol. 6 , p. 133 .

4- Ali (AS) wrote a letter to Aisha that “You left your house and suppose that you are renovating among Muslims and imagine you are avenging Othman’s blood. You used to rebel people against him until a short while ago (while he was alive and in power) and used to say among companions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) that “Kill Na’thal. May God kill him”. How is it that today you seek his revenge? Fear God and go back to your house. Cover yourself (with hijab) before God reveals your true self.

There is no power but from God, the Almighty”.

- Al-sirah al-Halabia , vol. 3 , p. 356 .

Aisha’s not preventing others from insulting Othman

Some people cursed Othman in presence of Aisha, but she did not react against that (and did not stop them from doing so):

It is quoted from Abu Said that some people were standing next to Aisha’s tent. At this moment Othman passed by. All of them except for me insulted or cursed him. One of them (who cursed Othman) was from Kufa and Othman reacted against him and told him “You, who are from Kufa! Come to Medina if you dare so!” and threatened him in this way!!!

- Musnaf Ibn Abi Shaibah , vol. 6 , p. 196 , No.  30628 and vol. 7 , p. 518 , 518 , No. 37684 .

Muhammad Ibne Abibakr

He insults Othman, Muawiya Ibne Khudaij, Muawiya Ibne Abi Sufyan, Amro Ibne Al Aas

Ibne Jarir and some others said that Muhammad Ibne Abi Bakr insulted Muawiya Ibne Khadij, Amro Ibne Al Aas, Muawiya Ibne Abu Sufyan, and Othman Ibne Afwan. At this moment, Muawiya Ibne Khadij got angry and attacked him and killed him. Then put his corpse inside skin of a donkey and burned him.

- Al-Badayah va al-Nahayah , vol. 7 , p. 315 , - al-Montazam , vol. 5 , p. 151 , - Tarikh al-Tabari , vol. 3 , p. 132 .

When Othman dies, he called him Na’thal (an old Jew)

Muhammad Ibne Abibakr entered ahead of the others and held Othman by his beard and said “You, Na’thal! God revealed your truth”.

- Al-Tabaqat al-kubra , vol. 3 , p. 73 .

Similar to this is reflected in the following references:

- Akhbar al-Medina vol. 2 p. 291 No. 2330 and p. 299 No. 2362, - al-Imama va al-syasah , vol. 1 , p. 40 and p. 41 and vol. 2 , p. 290 , 296  - Tarikh al-Tabari , vol. 2 , p. 677 , - al-Mehn , vol. 1 , p. 81 and p. 86 , - al-Mahjam al-kabir , vol. 1 , p. 83 , - Mahrefah al-sahabah , vol. 1 , p. 68 , - The history of the city of Damascus , vol. 39 , p. 403 and p. 408 , 409 , 410 , - al-kamel fi al-Tarikh , vol. 3 , p. 67 , - Sharh Nahjol – Balaghah Ibn Abi al-Hadid , vol. 2 , p. 94 .

Ammar Ibne Yasir

Abu Al Qadiya (a companion of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and one of murderers of Ammar) said “We considered Ammar Yasir as a good servant of God until the day when we were sitting in the mosque of Quba where Ammar called Othman as Na’thal. So, I look for someone to help me trample him to death!!!”

- Al-Tabaqat al-kubra , vol. 3 , p. 260 , - al-Maharef Ibn Qutaibah , vol. 1 , p. 257 , - Ansab al-Ashraf , vol. 1 , p. 75 and p. 238 , - al-Mehn , vol. 1 , p. 116 , - The history of the city of Damascus , vol. 39 , p. 429 .

Jabala Ibne Amro Al Ansari

Othman Ibne Afwan was passing by Jabala Al Ansari who was standing at the doorstep of his house. It happened when people where not satisfied with Othman. Then, he said to Othman “You, Na’thal! I swear to Allah that I will kill you”.

- Ansab al-Ashraf , vol. 2 , p. 274 , - Tarikh al-Tabari , vol. 2 , p. 661 , - Al-Badayah va al-Nahayah , vol. 7 , p. 176 .

Translation of Jabala Ibne Amro

Safadi writes in Al Wafi Bi Al Wafiyyat:

Jabala Ibne Amro Al Ansari; Suleiman Ibne Yasar said that “Jabala was a companion with so much virtues and he fought alongside with Ali (AS) in the war of Seffein”.

- Al-Vafy Belvafyat , vol. 11 , p. 40 .

Many Sunni scholars have considered him as a companion of the Holy Prophet (PBUH):

- Mahrefah al-Sahabah Abi Nahim , vol. 2 , p. 589 , - al-Estihab Ibn Abdul Bar , vol. 1 , p. 235 , - Asad al-Qabah , vol. 1 , p. 394 , - al-Esabah fi Tamiiz al-Sahabah , vol. 1 , p. 457 .

Jahjah Al Qaffari

Othman was over the pulpit and speaking to people. He held the stick which the Holy Prophet (PBUH), Abubakr, and Omar used to hold when they were speaking. Suddenly, Jahjah said to him “You, Na’thal! Get up and come down from this pulpit”!!!

- Tarikh al-Tabari , vol. 2 , p. 662 , - al-Badayah va al-Nahayah , vol. 7 , p. 175 .

Translation of Jahjah

Ibne Athir says:

Jahjah Ibne Qais Qaffari was from Medina … he was with the Holy Prophet (PBUH) in the treaty of Rezwan and he laso was present in the war of Marisi’ or Bani Al Mustalaq.

- Asad al-Qabah , vol. 1 , p. 451 , 815 .

3- Companions Who Insulted or Cursed Muawiya

Imam Ali (AS):

Ali (AS) used to say in Qonut (a part of salat) of his every morning salat “May God curse Muawiya, Amro Ibne Al Aas, Habib, Abdul Rahman Ibne Khalid, and Zahhak Ibne Qais”.

- Al-kamel fi al-Tarikh , vol. 2 , p. 81 , chapter ذکر اجتماع الحکمين

- Nahayah al-Arb fi Fonon al-Adab , vol. 20 , p. 96 .

- Tarikh Ibn khaldun , vol. 2 , p. 637 , chapter أمر الحکمين          

Imam Hassan (AS)

When Muawiya came to Kufa, he started to speak about Ali (AS) while Hassan (AS) and Hussein (AS) were listening to his speech. Muawiya insulted Ali (AS). Then he insulted Hassan (AS). Then, Hussein (AS) stood up and wanted to reply him, but Hassan (AS) held his hand and asked him to sit down. Then he stood up and said “You who are speaking about Ali (AS)! I am Hassan and Ali (AS) is my father and you are Muawiya and your father is Sakhr. My mother is Fateme Zahra (AS) and your mother is Hind. My grandfather is Messenger of Allah and your grandfather is Rabi’a. My grandmother is Khadija (AS) and your grandmother is Qatila. May God curse the one whose origin is despicable and the one whose wickedness is known to all from the past and the one who is pioneer in blasphemy and hypocrisy”.

So people all said “Amen!”

There is a lot to talk about in this tradition which was discussed earlier in the part “companions who were cursed by Imam Hassan (AS)”.

- Jomhorah Khattab al-Arab, vol. 2 p. 14, chapter:  رد الحسن بن على على معاوية حين نال منه ومن أبيه    

- Maqatel al-Talebin , vol. 1 , p. 19 , by Abu al-Faraj al-Isfahani , Ali ibn al-Hussein , ( died : 356 A.H ) , Death : 356 A.H.

- Sharh Nahjol – Balaghah , vol. 16 , p. 27 .

Ahnaf Ibne Qais

One day, heads of some tribes such as Ahnaf Ibne Qais came to visit Muawiya. A person from Sham came in and started speaking. He ended his speech by insulting Imam Ali (AS). And then people went away.

Ahnaf started to speak to Muawiya and said “You, Commander of Believers! This person who said these words, if he knew that you will get happy by insulting prophets, he would have insulted them! Fear God and leave Ali (AS). He has gone to God and now he is resting in his grave and he is with his deeds alone (and he is dead). I swear to Allah, he was a man of war, his clothes were clean, his sole was pure, and his loss was a great disaster”.  

Muawiya said “You, Hanaf! I close my eyes to wicked words that you already uttered, although you did say them! You should go over the pulpit and, like it or not, you should curse Ali (AS)!”

Ahnaf said “You, Commander of Believers! It is better for you if you release me from doing so! If you force me, I swear to Allah that I cannot utter such words”.

Muawiya said “Get up and mount the pulpit!”

Ahnaf said “I will go over the pulpit, but I will speak justly about you”.

Muawiya said “What do you mean? What are you going to say?”

Ahnaf said “I will go over the pulpit and say that ‘O, people! Truly Commander of Believers ordered me to curse Ali Ibne Abi Talib (AS)! Beware that Ali (AS) and Muawiya fought each other and they had problem with each other. Each of them claimed that the other side has rebelled against him and his army! So, you say Amen to my prayers and God will forgive us all’. And then I will say ‘O, God! May You, Your angels, Your prophets, and all Your creatures curse the one who caused this war and curse the rebellion! Say Amen and May God forgive you’! I will say no more or less than this even if it costs my life”.

Muawiya said “If it is like this, you are dismissed!”

- Vafyat al-Ahyan va Anba Abna al-Zaman , vol. 2 , p. 504 , by Abu al-Abbas Shamsuddin Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr ibn khalkan , ( died : 681 A.H ) , Publisher : Dar al-Seqafah – Lebanon , research by Ehsan Abbas .

Aisha

Ibne Jarir and some others said that Muhammad Ibne Abi Bakr insulted Muawiya Ibne Khadij, Amro Ibne Al Aas, Muawiya Ibne Abu Sufyan, and Othman Ibne Afwan. At this moment, Muawiya Ibne Khadij got angry and attacked him and killed him. Then put his corpse inside skin of a donkey and burned him.

When Aisha heard of it, she got really sad … and after every salat, she used to curse Muawiya and Amro Ibne Aas.

- Al-Badayah va al-Nahayah , vol. 7 , p. 315 , al-Montazam , vol. 5 , p. 151 , - Tarikh al-Tabari , vol. 3 , p. 132 .

Evidences of this story

Heithami, in Majma’ Al Zawaid, writes about this tradition:

This tradition is quoted by Tabarani in summary and completely and it has several references that some of them are the same as references of Ahmad Ibne Hanbal and its narrators are reliable.

- Majmah al-Zavaed , vol. 9 , p. 294 .

Other evidences

- Tafsir Maghatel ibn Suleiman vol. 1 , p. 237 , - Tafsir by al-Tabari , vol. 5 , p. 148 , - Tafsir by Ibn Abi Hatam , vol. 3 , p. 988 , No. 5531 and p. 989 , No. 5540 , - Tafsir by al-Salabi , vol. 3 , p. 335 , - al-Muharrar al-vajiz fi Tafsir al-ketab al-Aziz , vol. 2 , p. 71 , - Tafsir al-Bahr va al-Mohit , vol. 3 , p. 290 , - Tafsir by Ibn Kasir , vol. 1 , p. 519 , - Tafsir by al-Thaalbi , vol. 3 , p. 335 , - al-Dur al-Mansor , vol. 2 , p. 573 , - Roh al-Mahani , vol. 5 , p. 65 , - sharh Moshkel al-Asar Tahawi , vol. 8 , p. 271 , chapter بَيَانُ مُشْكِلِ ما رُوِيَ عن رسول اللهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فِيمَا كان من عَمَّارِ بن يَاسِرٍ وَمِنْ خَالِدِ بن الْوَلِيدِ    - al-Mahjam al-Kabir Tabarani , vol. 4 , p. 112 , No. 3830 to 3834 , chapter مَالِكُ بن الْحَارِثِ بن الأَشْتَرِ عن خَالِدِ بن الْوَلِيدِ  - Musnad al-Tialasi , vol. 1 , p. 158 , No. 1156 , chapter Ahadith Khaled ibn al-Walid ( May God be well pleased with him ), - al-Ajaeb fi Bayan al-Asbab , vol. 2 , p. 897 , - Jameh al-Ahadith Suyuti , vol. 19 , p. 402 , No. 14909 to 14912  and vol. 21 , p. 57 , No. 18338 to 18341 , - kanz al-Ahmal , vol. 13 , p. 228 , No. 37388 to 37391 , - al-sirah al-Halabia , vol. 2 , p. 265 , - al-Tarikh al-Kabir Bukhari , vol. 3 , p. 136 , No. 461 , - Fazael al-sahabah by Nisaei , vol. 1 , p. 49 , No. 164 , and p. 50 , No. 166 , 167 Ammar ibn Yaser , - sunnan al-Nisaei al-Kubra , vol. 5 , p. 74 , No. 8271 and 8272 , - al-Mostadrak alal – sahihain , vol. 3 , p. 439 , No. 5667 and p. 440 , No. 5673 and p. 441 , No. 5675 .

Samara Ibne Jundab

Muawiya assigned Samara as governor of Basra for 6 (or, according to some historical texts, 18) months and then dismissed him. Because if this, Samara said “May God curse Muawiya! If I obeyed God as I obeyed Muawiya, I would never go to the Hell!”

- Ansab al-Ashraf , vol. 2 , p. 161 , by Ahmad ibn Yahya ibn Jaber al-Buladhiri , ( died : 279 A.H ) , Death : 279 A.H.

- Tarikh al-Tabari , vol. 3 , p. 240 , author name : by Abi Jafar Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari , ( died 310 A.H ) , Publisher : Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Beirut .

- Al-Montazam fi Tarikh al-Molok va al-Umam , vol. 5 , p. 267 , by Abdul Rahman ibn Ali ibn Muhammad ibn al-Jozi Abu al-Faraj , ( died 597 A.H ) , PUBLISHER : Dar Sader – Beirut – 1358 A.H. , Edition : First .

- Al-kamel fi al-Tarikh , vol. 3 , p. 343 , by Abu al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi al-karam Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Abdul karim al-Shaibani , ( died : 630 A.H ) , publisher : Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Beirut – 1415 A.H. , al-Tabaha : second edition , Research : Abdullah al-Qazi .

Aqil Ibne Abi Talib

Muawiya said to Aqil Ibne Abi Talib “Ali did not give your part from Bait Al Mal (the treasury), but I did. The only thing that you can do in return to what I did for you is insulting Ali (AS) over the pulpit”.

Aqil said “I will do it!”

Then he went over the pulpit and after praise of Allah said “You, people! Commander of Believers, Muawiya, told me to curse Ali Ibne Abi Talib (AS)! Then you, too, curse him! May God and all Hid angels curse him!” and then he came down!

Muawiya said to Aqil “You did not clarify whom you cursed; Ali (AS) or me?!”

He replied “I swear to Allah, I said no more or less of what I was supposed to say! And what is means by what was said is known only to speaker”.

- Al-Aqd al-Farid , vol. 4 ,. P. 27 , by Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn  Abed Rabbo al-Andulasi , ( died 328 A.H ) , publisher ; Dar Ahya al-Tras al-Arabi – Beirut / Lebanon – 1420 A.H. – 1999 A.D , Edition : third .

- Vafyat al-Ahyan va Anba Abna al-Zaman , vol. 2 , p. 505 , by Abu al-Abbas Shamsuddin Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr ibn khalkan , ( died : 681 A.H ) , Publisher : Dar al-Seqafah – Lebanon , research by Ehsan Abbas .

- Al-Mostatraf fi kol Fen Mustazraf , vol. 1 , p. 101 , by Shahab al-Din Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Ahmad Abi al-Fatah al-Abshihi , ( died 850 A.H ) , publisher ; Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Beirut – 1406 A.H. – 1986 A.D , Edition : second , research by Mofid Muhammad Qamiha .

It is very clear that Aqil had cursed Muawiya!

Qanima Bint Qanim

When Qanima, daughter of Qanim, heard that Muawiya and Amro Ibne Aas have insulted Bani Hashim, she said “You, people of Mecca! … Is Amro Ibne Aas among you?” Amro said “I am here”. She told him “Did you, who deserve to be insulted, insult Bani Hashim?”

Then she added “You, Muawiya! I tell you something. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) asked God to answer five of my prayers (wills). Do you want me to ask him to curse you instead of the five?”

Muawiya was frightened and swore not to insult Bani Hashim anymore.

- Al-Mahasen va al-Azdad , vol. 1 , p. 103 , Samt al-Nojom al-Awalemi , vol. 3 , p. 128 , al-Mahasen va al-Mosawi , vol. 1 , p. 73 .

This very tradition shows that Qanima was a companion of the Holy Prophet (PBUH).

Companions Who Insulted Wives of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)

1- Companions Who Insulted Aisha:

Some companions in the story of Afak, Othman Ibne Afwan, Hakim Ibne Jabala, Zeinab Bint Jahsh (the Prophet’s wife), Safiya (the prophet’s wife)

2- Aisha Insults Zeinab Bint Jahsh

3- Aisha Insults Safiya, the Prophet’s Wife

4- Othman Insults Hafse

1- Companions Who Insulted Aisha

In Sunni references, there are instances that some of companions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) had insulted Aisha. They include:

Some companions in the story of Afak (according to Sunnis’ view)

Aisha quoted the Holy Prophet (PBUH) that he was speaking to a group of people and after praise of God said “What do you propose me to do with those who insult my wife (Aisha, in the story of Afak) and I saw nothing bad from them until now?”

- Sahih al-Bukhari , vol. 6 , p. 2683 , No. 6936 .

Othman Ibne Afwan insulting Aisha

Salat was held and Othman went ahead of others and wanted to start salat. At this time, a woman stood up and said “Listen to me” and she said that people do not follow orders of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and stood against him. Then she was silent and another woman stood up and said the same things. Those two women were Aisha and Hafse. When Othman finished his salat, he said “These two provocative women caused trouble in the salat and if they do not stop acting like that, I will tell them (insult them) whatever I know (of vulgar speaking)”.

- Al-Jameh Muammar bin Rashid , vol. 11 , p. 355 , - Musnaf Abdul Razzaq , vol. 11 , p. 356 .

Hakim Ibne Jabala insulting Aisha

1- Hakim Ibne Jabala was among those who fought against Othman and insulted Aisha.

- Maqtal al-Shahid Ottoman , vol. 1 , p. 228 .

2- Then Hakim Ibne Jabala, while he was insulting and holding a spear in his hand, attacked them. A person from Abdul Qais told him “Who are you insulting?” He replied “Aisha!” That man replied “You, Son of a bitch! Are you insulting Mother of Believers?”

-Al-kamel fi al-Tarikh , vol. 3 , p. 107 .

Translation of Hakim Ibne Jabala

Ibne Athir writes about him:

He had seen the Holy Prophet (PBUH) … He was a pious, religious person and was leader of his tribe. He was the person who assigned Othman as governor of Send.

- Asad al-Qabah by Ibn al-Asir , vol. 2 , p. 40 .

Ibne Hajar also considers him as a companion:

- Al-Esabah , vol. 2 , p. 181 .

- Al-Ahlam Lekhair al-Din al-Zarkali , vol. 2 , p. 269 .

Zeinab Bint Jahsh, the Prophet’s wife, insulted Aisha

It was mentioned earlier that it is mentioned in Sahih Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, and Sunan Abi Dawoud that she insulted Aisha and Aisha, in return, insulted her:

The wives of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) sent Zeinab Bint Jahash (the wife of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)).

She came to the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and spoke to him boldly! She said “Your wives ask you to act justly to your wives!” and she spoke loudly! Then she addressed Aisha who was sitting there and started to insult Aisha!

- Sahih al-Bukhari , vol. 2 , p. 911 , No. 2442 , book al-Habah , chapter :من أَهْدَى إلى صَاحِبِهِ وَتَحَرَّى بَعْضَ نِسَائِهِ دُونَ بَعْضٍ

Muslim has this tradition with some minor changes in his Sahih:

Wives of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) sent Zeinab Bint Jahash, wife of the Holy Prophet (PBUH), to him … she said “You, Messenger of God! Your wives sent me to you to ask you act justly about Aihsa!” And then she insulted me. She insulted me for a long time.

- Sahih Moslim , vol. 4 , p. 1891 , No. 2442 , book Fazael al-Sahabah , chapter في فضل عائشه     

Safiya, the prophet’s wife, insulted Aisha

Aisha said that “Safiya and I were insulting one another. I insulted her father and she insulted my father. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) heard what she said and said to her ‘You, Safiya! Are you insulting Abubakr?’”

- Al-Tabaqat al-kubra , vol. 8 , p. 80 , by Muhammad ibn Saad ibn Monih Abu Abdullah al-Basri al-Zahri , ( died 230 A.H ) , publisher : Dar Sader – Beirut .

2- Aisha Insults Zeinab Bint Jahsh

As it was mentioned earlier, it is written in Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim ad Sunan Abi Dawoud that she insulted Aisha and Aisha insulted her back:

Wives of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) sent Zeinab Bint Jahash (the prophet’s wife) to the Holy Prophet (PBUH).

She came to the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and spoke boldly! She said “Your wives ask you to behave them justly” and she spoke loudly! Then she addressed Aisha while she was sitting there and insulted her! She continued to that extend that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) looked at Aisha and said to her “Do you answer her?”

Aisha answered Zeinab’s insults and she was forced to be silent!

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) looked at Aisha and said “She is daughter of Abubakr”!!!

- Sahih al-Bukhari , vol. 2 , p. 911 , No. 2442 , book al-Habah , chapter :من أَهْدَى إلى صَاحِبِهِ وَتَحَرَّى بَعْضَ نِسَائِهِ دُونَ بَعْضٍ

The same tradition with minor differences is mentioned in Sahih Muslim:

The wives of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) sent Zeinab, daughter of Hajash, to speak to the Holy Prophet (PBUH). She was respected by the Holy Prophet (PBUH) among them, like me. And I saw none like her in piety, being religious, honesty, kindness, generosity, and humbleness. She was just a little tough and that was temporary.

She asked permission from the Holy Prophet (PBUH) to come in while the Holy Prophet (PBUH) was lying with me under a sheet, as we were when Fateme (AS) wanted to come in. she was let in.

She said “You, Messenger of Allah! Your wives sent me and they ask you toact justly toward Aisha”. And then she insulted me and oppressed me.

I respected the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and was waiting for his beck. Finally, I figured out that he is happy with my taking revenge. When I insulted Zeinab, I did not let her speak and defeated her very fast!

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said “She is daughter of Abubakr” while he was laughing!

- Sahih Moslim , vol. 4 , p. 1891 , No. 2442 , book Fazael al-Sahabah , chapter في فضل عائشه     

Ibne Abi Dawoud also quoted this tradition in the following form. He claims that the Holy Prophet (PBUH), expressly, ordered Aisha to insult Zeinab. And Aisha not only insulted Zeinab, but she also insulted the family of Imam Ali (AS)!

Ibne Awn, who is believed by scholars to have contact with Aisha and used to meet her a lot, quoted Aisha who said “One day the Holy Prophet (PBUH) came to me and Zeinab, daughter of Hajash, was with us. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) did something with his hand (that was not appropriate to do in presence of Zeinab) and I informed him of presence of Zeinab and showed her not to do so”.

Zeinab came to Aisha and started to insult her. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) told her to stop, but she did not listen to him and continued what she was doing!!! Then the Holy Prophet (PBUH) told Aisha to insult her back!!! Aisha insulted Zeinab and her insults were stronger (more vulgar) than those of Zeinab!!!

Zeinab went to Ali (AS) and said that Aisha had insulted him and explained what happened. Fateme (AS) went to the Holy Prophet (PBUH). The Holy Prophet (PBUH) told her “I swear to the God of Ka’ba that Aisha is loved by me”! And because of that, Fateme (AS) returned!!!

- Sunnan Abi Davoud , vol. 4 , p. 274 , No. 4898 .

It is clear that this tradition is meant to prove supremacy and virtues of Aisha, but with what criterion and value?!

Ibne Hajar writes after quoting this tradition:

Nassai and Ibne Majah quoted Aisha who said “I went to Zeinab and she insulted me. Although the Holy Prophet (PBUH) banned her from doing so, she continued. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) told me ‘You, too, insult her!’ I insulted her so toughly that he could not breathe a word!!!”

- Fatah al-Bary , vol. 5 , p. 152 .

3- Aisha Insults Safiya, the Prophet’s Wife

This tradition, too, was mentioned earlier in this article:

Aisha said that “Safiya and I were insulting one another. I insulted her father and she insulted my father. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) heard what she said and said to her ‘You, Safiya! Are you insulting Abubakr?’”

- Al-Tabaqat al-kubra , vol. 8 , p. 80 , by Muhammad ibn Saad ibn Monih Abu Abdullah al-Basri al-Zahri , ( died 230 A.H ) , publisher : Dar Sader – Beirut .

4- Othman Insults Hafse

Salat was held and Othman went ahead of others and wanted to start salat. At this time, a woman stood up and said “Listen to me” and she said that people do not follow orders of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and stood against him. Then she was silent and another woman stood up and said the same things. Those two women were Aisha and Hafse. When Othman finished his salat, he said “These two provocative women caused trouble in the salat and if they do not stop acting like that, I will tell them (insult them) whatever I know (of vulgar speaking)”.

- Al-Jameh Mahmar ibn Rashid , vol. 11 , p. 355 , - Musnaf Abdul Razzaq , vol. 11 , p. 356 .

Companions Who Insulted Imam Ali (AS) and Other Members of Ahle Bait

Here is a list of them:

Abubakr, Othman Ibne Afwan, Muawiya Ibne Abi Sufyan, Aisha, Muqaira Ibne Shuba, Amro Ibne Al Aas, Marwan, Basr Ibne Artat, Walid Ibne Aqaba, Atabat Ibne Abi Sufyan, Abbas; Uncle of the Holy Prophet (PBUH), Abdullah Ibne Al Zubair, one of the Holy Prophet’s wife, Aba Al Aur, Zahhak Ibne Qais, Habib Ibne Muslima, Abu Musa Ashari

Insulting Imam Ali (AS) Is Insulting the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and Insulting the Holy Prophet (PBUH) Is Insulting God.

According to Sunni traditions, the Holy Prophet (PBUH) said “Anyone insults Ali (AS), he has insulted me”. Sunni scholars have quoted this tradition according to reliable references:

Hakim Neishabouri says that this hadith is true

Hakim Neishabouri says:

Abu Abdullah Bajali says “I went to Umme Salame. She said to me ‘Is the Holy Prophet (PBUH) insulted among you?’

I Said ‘I take refuge to Allah from that!’

She said ‘I heard the Holy Prophet (PBUH) said “Whoever insults Ali (AS), he has insulted me”’.

The reference of this tradition is accurate, but this is not mentioned in Sahih Bukhari or Sahih Muslim.

The same tradition is quoted by Bakir Ibne Othman Bajali with some minor additions.

- Al-Mostadrak alal – Sahihain , vol. 3 , p. 130 , No. 4615 , by Muhammad ibn Abdullah Abu Abdullah al-Hakim al-Neishaburi , ( died : 405 A.H ) , Publisher : Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Beirut – 1411 A.H. – 1990 A.D , Edition : first , research by Mustafa Abdul Qader Ata .

Heithami says that this hadith is true

Heithami says:

It is quoted from Abu Abdullah Hadali that “I went to Umme Salame. She told me “Does anyone insult the Holy Prophet (PBUH) in your presence?” I said “I seek refuge from that to Allah!” She said “I heard the Holy Prophet (PBUH) saying ‘Whoever insults Ali (AS), he has insulted me’”.

This tradition is quoted by Ahmad Ibne Hanbal and all its narrators are reliable, except for Abu Abdullah who is also acceptable.

After quoting this tradition, Tabarani quoted a similar tradition from the Holy Prophet (PBUH) which is quoted by Umme Salame which has almost the same content.

-  Majmah al-Zavaed va Manbah al-Favaed , vol. 9 , p. 130 , by Ali ibn Abi Bakr al-Haithami , ( died 807 A.H ) , Publisher : Dar al-Ryan Leltras / Dar al-ketab al-Arabi – Cairo , Beirut – 1407 A.H .

Ibne Wazir says that this hadith is true

Also, Ibne Wazir writes:

In Ahmad’s Musnad, it is quoted from Umme Salame that she says “Does anyone among you insult the Holy Prophet (PBUH)?” I said “I seek refuge to Allah from that!” Then, she said “I heard the Holy Prophet (PBUH) saying ‘Anyone who insults Ali (AS), he has insulted me’”.

All narrators of this hadith are agreed uopn except for Abi Abdullah Hadli Tabei who is also acceptable.

- Isar al-Haq alal – khalq fi Rad ela al-Mazhab al-Haq mena Usool , vol. 1 , p. 404 , author name : Muhammad ibn Nasr al-Murtaza al-Yamani , ( Ibn al-vazir) , ( died840 A.H ), Dar al-Nashr : Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Beirut – 1987 A.D , Edition : second .

Minawi accepts the text of this hadith

Minawi says:

“Anyone insults Ali (AS), he has insulted me and anyone who insults me, he has insulted God, and anyone who insults God is most wicked and miserable person”. This tradition shows how similar Mustafa (the Holy Prophet (PBUH)) and Murtaza (Imam Ali (AS)) were to each other. They were so close that respecting one means respecting both of them and enmity with one of them, means enmity toward the other one, too.

Ahmad Ibne Hanbal quotes a hadith from Abi Ubeidullah Jadali in Fazail Al Sahaba who quoted Umme Salame. He said “I went to Umme Salame. She said ‘Is the Holy Prophet (PBUH) insulted among you?’ I said ‘God forbids!’ She said ‘I heard from the Holy Prophet (PBUH) who said …’ and she said the tradition”.

This tradition has accurate reference according to Hakim. Zahabi, too, said that Jadali is acceptable. Also, Heithami had said that all narrators of Ahmad are reliable except for Abu Abdullah Jadali who is acceptable.

- Feyz al-Ghadir sharh al-Jameh al-saghir , vol. 6 , p. 404 , by Abdul Rahouf al-Manawi , ( died 1031 A.H ) , Dar al-Nashr ; al-Maktabah al-Tejaryah al-kubra – Egypt – 1356 A.H. , Edition : first .

Although there are some hadiths like it and they are all quoted in Sunni books and according to Sunni scholars, they are true, but still some companions insulted or cursed Imam Ali (AS) and the respected family of the Holy Prophet (PBUH). This part of the article brings some examples of the case. Here, we see that there are instances where Imam Ali (AS) and Ahle Bait of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) are cursed by some companions and the other companions had no reaction toward this matter!

1- Abubakr

As it was mentioned in an earlier part, Abu Hilal Hassan Ibne Abdullah Askari quotes Abubakr in Jumhira Al Amthal some rude and offensive words, but the addressee of Abubakr was not clear in there. But the text of the tradition shows that the addressee of Abubakr is one of companions who was thought to succeed the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and a woman tried a lot for this matter.

All people should ask why your witnesses are all from your own side! He caused all these seductions. He is a mutton dresses as a lamb. He asks for help of women and the poor; help of some people such as Umme Tahal (a famous woman during the period before Islam) whose best friend was adultery!

- Jomhorah al-Amsal , vol. 1 , p. 130 , and p. 554 , by Abu Helal al-Hassan ibn Abdullah ibn Sahl ibn Saeid ibn Yahya ibn Mehran al-Askari ( died : about 395 A.H ) , Died : 395 A.H.

Translation of Abu Hilal Askari

Zahabi writes in Tarikh Al Islam:

Abu Hilal Askari, Hassan Ibne Abdullah Ibne Sahl Ibne Said Ibne Yahya Ibne Mihran, the linguist and literary figure says “I asked Abu Muzaffar Abiwerdi about him. He saluted him and introduced him as owner of science and chastity at the same time”.

- Tarikh al-Islam va vafyat al-Mashahir va al-Ahlam Tar , vol. 28 , p. 512 , by Shamsuddin Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Ottoman al-Zahabi , ( died 748 A.H. ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar al-ketab al-Arabi –Lebanon / Beirut – 1407 A.H. – 1987 A.D. , al-Tabaha ; 1 , research by Dr. Umar Abdul Salam Tadmouri .

Who is Abubakr’s addressee? Ibne Abi Al Hadid replies

Ibne Abi Al Hadid has this tradition in Sharh Nahj Al Bilaqa. He quotes that Abubakr said:

When Abubakr heard the speech of Fateme (AS), he was not happy with that. He went over the pulpit and said “… All his witnesses are from his own side!!!” Then he descended the pulpit and Fateme Zahra (AS) went to her house.

I read this tradition to Naqib Abi Yahya Jafar Ibne Yahya and asked “Who was quipped by Abubakr?” He replied “It was no quip! He spoke very directly and clearly”.

I said “If it was clear and to the point, I would not ask you about it”. He laughed and replied “To Ali Ibne Abi Talib (AS)!”

I said “Was all that toward Ali (AS)?” He replied “Yes, my son! It was all about governance”.

- Sharh Nahjol – Balaghah , vol. 16 , p. 126 , by Abu Hamed Izz al-Din ibn Hobullah ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Abi al-Hadid al-Madaeni , ( died 655 A.H ) , publisher : Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Beirut / Lebanon – 1418 A.H. – 1998 A.D , Edition : first ,research by Muhammad Abdul karim al-Nimri .

2- Othman Ibne Afwan

It is quoted from Said Ibne Musayyib that “one day I saw Imam Ali (AS) and Othman while they were insulting each other so boldly that I have never heard such a quarrel before. I would tell you what I heard on that day if I had told anyone about that” …

- Al-Amali fi Asar al-sahabah Abdul Razzaq , vol. 1 , p. 70 , No. 91 .

3- Muawiya Ibne Abi Sufyan

Muawiya’s order to insult Imam Ali (AS) in Sahih Muslim

There is an explicit article about this matter in the following link:

http://www.valiasr-aj.com/fa/page.php?bank=maghalat&id=104

Here are the most important issues:

Muslim writes in his Sahih:

Amir Ibne Sad Ibne Abi Waqqas quotes his father that one day Muawiya Ibne Abu Sufyan ordered Sad to insult Ali Ibne Abi Talib (AS)! Sad disobeyed him.

Muawiya asked him “Why don’t you insult Ali (AS)?” Sad replied “That is because I heard three virtues of Ali Ibne Abi Talib from the Holy Prophet (PBUH). That is because I do not insult him and if I had only one of them, that was much more agreeable and honorable to me than many red camels that I owe”.

- Sahih Moslim , vol. 7 , p. 120 , No. 4420 , book Fazael al-Sahabah , chapter من فضائل علي بن أبي طالب رضي الله عنه .

Sunni scholars’ confession to removal of the part “ordered to” in this tradition

Here, following the model of many old and contemporary Shiite scholars who imitated their opponent in debates (in manner and style of speaking), we try to refer to words of some Sunni scholars to prove that they, too, had confessed that Muawiya ordered Sad Ibne Abi Waqqas to insult Imam Ali Ibne Abi Talib (AS). And, of course, he refused to do so because of his own reasons.

1- Ibne Timiya Hurrani

And tradition of Sad: When Muawiya ordered Sad Ibne Abi Waqqas to insult Ali (AS), he refused to follow his order. Muawiya said “What prevents you from insulting Ali (AS)?” Sad said “I heard three virtues about Ali (AS) from the Holy Prophet (PBUH) that I will never insult him. If one of those virtues was for me, that was much better for me than having many red camels”.

This is a valid hadith that Muslim quoted it in his Sahih.

- Menhaj al-Sunnah ,  vol. 3 , p. 15 , publisher ; Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah , Beirut , 1420 A.H.

Ibne Timiya, who is famous for insulting and enmity with the family of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) clearly confesses that Muawiya ordered Sad Ibne Abi Waqqas to insult Imam Ali (AS), but he refused. In fact the true sentence was “Muawiya ordered Sad Waqqas to insult Ali (AS), but he refused”.

2- Sheikh Abdullah Bin Qaniman

Sheikh Abdullah Bin Qaniman, professor of Medina Islanic University and head of PhD department, has this sentence in his book Mukhtasar Minhaj Al Sunna and confesses that Muawiya ordered others to insult Imam Ali Ibne Abi Talib (AS).

- See Menhaj al-Sunnah ,  vol. 3 , p. 15 , publisher ; Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah , Beirut , 1420 A.H.

3- Muqbil Ibne Hadi Al Wadei

He is a Wahhabi scholar who writes in the book Tuhfa Al Mujib:

Some of Umawi Khalifas asked Sad Ibne Abi Waqqas to insult Ali (AS), but he refused to do so. They asked “Why don’t you insult him?”

- Tohfah al-Mojib Ali Aslaha al-Hazer va al-Qaeb , vol. 9 , fourth edition Dar al-Asar , Yemen , 1426 A.H.

Although other Sunni scholars, such as Muslim, Termezi, Zahabi, Ibne Athir, Ibne Kathir, etc. mentioned the name of Muawiya, unfortunately the author of the book distorted this hadith and for the sake of Muawiya’s reputation, he replaced his name with “some of Umawi Khalifas”. 

4- Dr. Sheikh Musa Shahin Lashin

He writes in Sharh Sahih Muslim:

In this sentence that Muawiya ordered Sad, the word “order” is removed (in some distorted version) and, in order not to blame Muawiya, that part is not mentioned (that Muawiya ordered others to insult Ali (AS)). In that case, it seems like that “Muawiya ordered Sad Ibne Abi Waqqas to insult Ali (AS)”. That is because in the bloodshed of that era, Sad Ibne Abi Waqqas was silent and did not support either of sides and it was famous that he is supporting Ali (AS). And that is why Muawiya says “What stopped you from enmity with Ali (AS)?”

- Fatah al-Munhim sharh Sahih Moslim , vol. 9 , p. 332 , first edition , Dar al-Shoruq , Egypt .

And then he goes on with criticizing what Nuwi said:

Nuwi tries to exonerate Muawiya from this wicked act and therefore, he quotes other people.

And then he continues:

But this justification is regretful and false. That is because historical documents show that Muawiya order the insult of Ali (AS) and there is no need to exonerate him from this. That is because he is not an innocent person. Anyway, we are obliged not to question companions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH). That is while insulting Ali (AS) during the reign of Muawiya is something obvious.

To gaze Muawiya’s attention, they would insult the Holy Prophet (PBUH), leave alone Ali Ibne Abi Talib (AS)

This tradition was mentioned earlier in this article:

One day, heads of some tribes such as Ahnaf Ibne Qais came to visit Muawiya. A person from Sham came in and started speaking. He ended his speech by insulting Imam Ali (AS). And then people went away.

Ahnaf started to speak to Muawiya and said “You, Commander of Believers! This person who said these words, if he knew that you will get happy by insulting prophets, he would have insulted them! Fear God and leave Ali (AS). He has gone to God and now he is resting in his grave and he is with his deeds alone (and he is dead). I swear to Allah, he was a man of war, his clothes were clean, his sole was pure, and his loss was a great disaster”.  

Muawiya said “You, Hanaf! I close my eyes to wicked words that you already uttered, although you did say them! You should go over the pulpit and, like it or not, you should curse Ali (AS)!”

- Vafyat al-Ahyan va Anba Abna al-Zaman , vol. 2 , p. 504 , by Abu al-Abbas Shamsuddin Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr ibn khalkan , ( died : 681 A.H ) , Publisher : Dar al-Seqafah – Lebanon , research by Ehsan Abbas .

Muawiya insults Imam Ali (AS) – with true traditions

The above traditions are only about Muawiya’s order to insult Ali (AS). But Ibne Abi Shiba narrates with true reference that Muawiya, himself, insulted Imam Ali (AS):

In one of his trips for hajj, Sad Ibne Abi Waqqas went to Muawiya. Some spoke about Ali (AS) and Muawiya insulted him!

Sad got angry and said “Are you speaking about him like this. I swear to Allah, I heard the Holy Prophet (PBUH) who mentioned three virtues for Ali (AS). One of them was good for me in this world and in the hereafter. I heard the Holy Prophet (PBUH) said “Whoever I am his master, then Ali (AS) is his master, too”. And also I heard the Holy Prophet (PBUH) said “My relation with you is like that of Moses to Haroun. The only difference is that there are no prophets after me”. Also I heard from the Holy Prophet (PBUH) who said “I will give the flag to the one who is loved by God and His Messenger””.

- Musnaf Ibn Abi Shaibah , vol. 6 , p. 366 , no. 32078 , by Abu Bakr Abdullah ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Shaibah al-kufi , ( died 235 A.H ) , Publisher : Maktabah al-Roshd – Riyadh – 1409 A.H. , edition : first , research by kamal Yusuf al-Hout .

Muawiya’s order to Aqil Ibne Abi Talib: Go over the pulpit and insult Ali Ibne Abi Talib (AS)!

Muawiya said to Aqil Ibne Abi Talib “Ali did not give your part from Bait Al Mal (the treasury), but I did. The only thing that you can do in return to what I did for you is insulting Ali (AS) over the pulpit”.

Aqil said “I will do it!”

Then he went over the pulpit and after praise of Allah said “You, people! Commander of Believers, Muawiya, told me to curse Ali Ibne Abi Talib (AS)! Then you, too, curse him! May God and all Hid angels curse him!” and then he came down!

Muawiya said to Aqil “You did not clarify whom you cursed; Ali (AS) or me?!”

He replied “I swear to Allah, I said no more or less of what I was supposed to say! And what is means by what was said is known only to speaker”.

- Al-Aqd al-Farid , vol. 4 ,. P. 27 , by Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn  Abed Rabbo al-Andulasi , ( died 328 A.H ) , publisher ; Dar Ahya al-Tras al-Arabi – Beirut / Lebanon – 1420 A.H. – 1999 A.D , Edition : third .

Muawiya insults Imam Ali (AS), Imam Hassan (AS), Imam Hussein (AS), and Ibne Abbas

1- In his morning salat, Ali used to say in his Qonut (a part of his salat) “May God curse Muawiya, Amro Ibne Aas, Aba Al Aour, Habib Ibne Muslima, Abdul Rahman Ibne Khalid, Zahhak Ibne Qais, Walid”. Muawiya heard it. So he used to insult Ali, Ibne Abbas, Hassan, Hussein, and Malik Ashtar in his Qonut!!!

- Al-kamel fi al-Tarikh , vol. 2 , p. 81 , chapter ذکر اجتماع الحکمين

- Nahayah al-Arb fi Fonon al-Adab , vol. 20 , p. 96 .

- Tarikh Ibn khaldun , vol. 2 , p. 637 , chapter أمر الحکمين

When Muawiya came to Kufa, spoke about Ali (AS) in presence of Hassan (AS) and Hussein (AS) and insulted Ali (AS). Then he insulted Hassan (AS) …

- Jomohrah Khattab al-Arab vol. 2 p. 14, chapter الحسن بن على على معاوية حين نال منه ومن أبيه

- Sharh Nahjol – Balaghah , vol. 16 , p. 27 ,

An explicit discussion was raised in this regard in the part “companions who were cursed by Imam Hassan (AS)”.

Muawiya: I cannot stop insulting Ali (AS) in public!

When Abu Ayyub Khalid Ibne Zeid Badri, the person who hosted the Holy Prophet (PBUH) when he traveled to Medina and commander of the army of Imam Ali (AS) in the war of Seffein and the person who debated the Khawarij in the war of Nahrawan, heard Muawiya insulted Imam Ali (AS) said to him “You, Muawiya! Stop insulting Ali (AS) in public”.

Muawiya replied “I cannot help it! I cannot stop insulting him in public”.

On response, Abu Ayyub said “I swear to Allah, I will not live in the city in where Ali (AS) is insulted!” Then he went to the seaside and there he passed away!

- Baghyah al-Talab fi Tarikh Aleppo , vol. 7 , p. 3033 , by kamal al-Din Umar ibn Ahmad ibn Abi Jaradah , ( died : 660 A.H ) , Publisher : Dar al-Fekr , research by Dr. Suhail Zakar .

One article of the Peace Treaty was that Muawiya should not curse Imam Ali (AS), but he did not accept.

One thing Imam Hassan (AS) wanted Muawiya to make peace with him … was that he does not curse Imam Ali (AS), but he did not accept. Then, Imam Hassan (AS) wanted him not to curse Imam Ali (AS) in his presence. Muawiya accepted it, but he did not keep his word and insulted Imam Ali (AS) in presence of Imam Hassan (AS)!!!)

- Al-Mukhtasar fi Akhbar al-Bashar by Abi al-Fada , vol. 1 , p. 126 .

Similar to this tradition is mentioned in the following:

- Al-Vafi Belvafyat , vol. 12 , p. 68 , - Tarikh Ibn khaldun , vol. 2 , p. 648 .

A group of people used to gather around Muawiya to insult Imam Ali (AS) and Imam Hassan (AS)

Amro Aas, Walid Ibne Aqaba, Ataba Ibne Abi Sufyan, and Muqaira Ibne Shuba went to Muawiya. They said to him “You, Commander of Believers! Send someone to Hassan Ibne Ali (AS) and ask for his presence and inform him that his father was murderer of Othman! Muawiya sent someone to Hassan (AS). Hassan (AS) said “Say what you want to say and I will hear”. Amro Aas said “You, Hassan! Do you know that your father was the first person who started the فتنه and claimed power? Did you see what God did to him?”

Then Walid Ibne Aqaba stood up and praised God and then said “You, Bani Hashim! You were Othman’s father-in-law! He was a good son-in-law to you, because you were relatives of the Holy Prophet (PBUH). He got close to you and respected you. But you rebelled against him and killed him. We wanted to kill your father (Ali (AS)), but God fled him from us! If we would kill him, that was no sin for us!”

Then Ataba Ibne Abi Sufyan stood up and said “You, Hassan! Your father rebelled against Othman and killed him out of his jealousy and for worldly desires! Then God took khilafat and the world away from him! We wanted to kill your father, but God killed him!”

Then Muqaira Ibne Shuba stood up and said something in blame of Imam Ali (AS) and insulted him and praised Othman!

Then Hassan (AS) stood up, praised God and said “I start speaking with you, Muawiya! They were not alone insulting me! You, too, are insulting me due to your enmity, hatred, and jealousy toward my grandfather, the Holy Prophet (PBUH)!”

Then he turned to people and said “I ask you! Wasn’t this person whom these people were insulting my father? Wasn’t he the first person who believed in Islam? Wasn’t he the person who said salat toward two Qiblas? And at that time you, Muawiya, were blasphemer! On the day of Badr, the flag of the Islamic army was held by my father and the flag of the army of pagans was held by Muawiya!”

Then he continued “Don’t you know that Muawiya wrote something to my grandfather. One day he asked for Muawiya’s presence and the messenger returned alone and said ‘Muawiya is eating’! This happened three times and the Holy Prophet (PBUH) said ‘May you never feel well-fed’! You, Muawiya! Don’t you understand this curse of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) upon you and this that you never feel well-fed?! Don’t you know that one day Muawiya was holding rein of his father’s camel and his brother was pushing from the back and the Holy Prophet (PBUH) said what he said and you (Muawiya), too, know what he said! All these were about you!

But you, Amro! Five people from Quraish were fighting each other over you! Similarity of Abham to you called his victory, while his bloodline and position was more wierd than others! But you still stood against Quraish and said “I will weaken Muhammad with only 30 lines of poem!”

And the Holy Prophet (PBUH) replied “Oh, God! I do not know how to write poems! May you curse Amro Aas for each line of his poem”.

But you, Abi Muit! How can I blame you for insulting my father while my father whipped you for drinking wine?! And my father killed your grandfather according to the order of my grandfather, the Holy Prophet (PBUH). And my grandfather issued this order for the sake of God!

And you Ataba! Why do you blame others for killing while you do not blame yourself? Why didn’t you kill the man who laid with your wife and committed adultery?! And you mated with your wife again after the adultery!

And you, Awur Thaqif (Muqaira)! Why do you insult Ali (AS)? For separating from the Holy Prophet (PBUH)?! For oppressing people?! If you have such a claim, that is clearly a lie and people would consider you as liar! If you really think that Ali (AS) has killed Othman, again you are lying and people consider you as liar! You are like the mosquito which is sitting over a palm tree and says to the tree “Sit strong that I am going to jump and fly!” The tree would tell him “I did not even feel your presence. Leave alone your flying away!” How can I be sad with your insult?! And then he shook his cloth and stood up!

- Ahlam al-Nas Bema Waqeh Lelbera Mecca Maha Bani al-Abbas , vol. 1 , p. 27 , by Muhammad Dyab al-Atlide , ( died 1100A.H ) , publisher ; Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Beirut / Lebanon – 1425 A.H. 2004 A.D , Edition : first , research by Muhammad Ahmad Abdul Aziz Salem .

Insulting Imam Ali (AS) in meetings of Muawiya

It is quoted from Abdul Rahman Beilamabi that “I was with Muawiya. A person came to us and insulted Ali (AS). Then Said Ibne Zeid stood up and said ‘You, Muawiya! I see that Ali (AS) is being insulted in your presence and you have no reaction against this matter!!!”

- Al-Sunnah by Ibn Abi Asem , vol. 2 , p. 602 , No. 1350 .

Muawiya’s insult to Bani Hashim

When Qanima, daughter of Qanim, heard that Muawiya and Amro Ibne Aas have insulted Bani Hashim, she said “You, people of Mecca! … Is Amro Ibne Aas among you?” Amro said “I am here”. She told him “Did you, who deserve to be insulted, insult Bani Hashim?”

Then she added “You, Muawiya! I tell you something. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) asked God to answer five of my prayers (wills). Do you want me to ask him to curse you instead of the five?”

Muawiya was frightened and swore not to insult Bani Hashim anymore.

- Al-Mahasen va al-Azdad , vol. 1 , p. 103 , Samt al-Nojom al-Awalemi , vol. 3 , p. 128 , al-Mahasen va al-Mosawi , vol. 1 , p. 73 .

4- Aisha

Her indifference toward insulting Imam Ali (AS)

It is quoted from Ata Ibne Yasar that a person insulted Ali (AS) and Ammar in presence of Aisha. Then Aisha said “About Ali (AS), I tell you nothing, but the Holy Prophet (PBUH) said about Ammar ‘If he is in a dilemma in doing something, he will absolutely choose the best option’”.

- Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal , vol. 6 , p. 113 , No. 24864 .

Aisha’s insult to family of Imam Ali (AS)

It was quoted from Abi Dawoud that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) explicitly ordered Aisha to insult Zeinab! And Aisha insulted not only Zeinab, but the family of Imam Ali (AS)!

Ibne Awn, who is believed by scholars to have contact with Aisha and used to meet her a lot, quoted Aisha who said “One day the Holy Prophet (PBUH) came to me and Zeinab, daughter of Hajash, was with us. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) did something with his hand (that was not appropriate to do in presence of Zeinab) and I informed him of presence of Zeinab and showed her not to do so”.

Zeinab came to Aisha and started to insult her. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) told her to stop, but she did not listen to him and continued what she was doing!!! Then the Holy Prophet (PBUH) told Aisha to insult her back!!! Aisha insulted Zeinab and her insults were stronger (more vulgar) than those of Zeinab!!!

Zeinab went to Ali (AS) and said that Aisha had insulted him and explained what happened. Fateme (AS) went to the Holy Prophet (PBUH). The Holy Prophet (PBUH) told her “I swear to the God of Ka’ba that Aisha is loved by me”! And because of that, Fateme (AS) returned!!!

- Sunnan Abi Dawoud , vol. 4 , p. 274 , No. 4898 .

5- Muqaira Ibne Shuba

He is among people who insulted Imam Ali (AS) and would not react against those who insulted Imam Ali (AS) in his presence:

Lecturers and speakers used to curse Imam Ali (AS) according to his order

When they were collecting supporter for Muawiya, Muqaira Ibne Shuba forced some lecturers to curse Ali (AS).

- Al-Sunnah by Ibn Abi Asem , vol. 2 , p. 618 , No. 1427 , - Sharh Nahjol – Balaghah ibn Abi al-Hdid , vol. 13 , p. 131 .

- Sunnan Abi Dawoud , vol. 4 , p. 211 , No. 4648 . (Mentioned in the story without name of Moqairah)

His insults toward Imam Ali (AS) – with true reference

1- Then Muqaira went over the pulpit and after praise of God insulted Ali (AS) …

- Al-Mahjam al-kabir , vol. 3 , p. 71 , No. 2698 .

Heithami writes about this tradition:

This tradition is narrated by Tabarani who quoted his master, Zakariya, who is considered by Zahabi as a pioneer scientists of the science of tradition and he says “I see no matter with him” … other narrators of this tradition are narrators of the Sahihs.

- Majmah al-Zavaed , vol. 7 , p. 247 .

2- It is quoted from Ziyad Ibne Alaqa who quoted his uncle that Muqaira Ibne Shuba cursed Ali Ibne Abi Talib (AS) …

This tradition is accurate according to the criteria of Muslim, but it is not mentioned in the two Sahihs.

- Al-Mostadrak alal – Sahihain , vol. 1 , p. 541 , No. 1419 .

3- It is quoted from Abdullah Ibne Zalim that Muqaira was giving a speech and he cursed Ali (AS) …

- sunnan al-Nisaei al-Kubra , vol. 5 , p. 58 , No. 8205 and Fazael al-sahabah by Nisaei , vol. 1 , p. 31 , No. 101 .

- Sunnan Abi Dawoud , vol. 4 , p. 211 , No. 4649 (mention the whole story as Rajol instead of a name of Moghayrah)

4- One day Muqaira Ibne Shuba was giving a lecture to us and then he disrespected Ali (AS). Said Ibne Zeid stood up and said “I heard the Holy Prophet (PBUH) who said …”

This tradition and others with similar content can be seen in the following:

- Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal , vol. 1 , p. 188 , No. 1631 and 1637 and 1638 , - Fazael al -sahabah by ibn Hanbal, vol. 1 , p. 116 , No. 87 and p. 221 , No. 256 , 257 , - Musnad Abi Yali , vol. 2 , p. 259 , No. 971 , - The history of the city of Damascus vol. 21 , p 71 , and vol. 35 , p. 274 and 275 , - Musnad al-Shashi , vol. 1 , p. 247 , No. 210 , - Al-Sunnah by Ibn Abi Asem , vol. 2 , p. 619 , No. 1428 to 30 , - Al-Ahadith al-Mukhtarah , vol. 3 , p. 288 , No. 1089 and 1090 , ( it is a sound narration ) – Tahzib al-Kamal , vol. 16 , p. 288 .

5- It is quoted from Ismail Ibne Ibrahim that he said “One day Ibrahim Ibne Zeid and I were sitting next to Kinde in the Friday Salat. Then, Muqiara started speaking. He praised God and then disrespected Ali (AS). Then Ibrahim touched my knee and said “Look at me and speak to me. That is because we are not sitting in a Friday Salat. Don’t you hear what he says?!”

- Sharh Nahjol – Balaghah ibn Abi al-Hdid , vol. 13 , p. 132 .

6- Then Muqaira Ibne Shuba stood up and said some words in disrespect of Ali (AS) and praise of Othman!

- Ahlam al-Nas Bema Waqeh Lelbera Mecca Maha Bani al-Abbas , vol. 1 , p. 28 , by Muhammad Dyab al-Atlide , ( died 1100A.H ) , publisher ; Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Beirut / Lebanon – 1425 A.H. 2004 A.D , Edition : first , research by Muhammad Ahmad Abdul Aziz Salem .

7- Muawiya assigned Muqaira as governor of Kufa. He was there for nine years. His manner was fine and he seriously sought peace. His only problem was that he would speak toughly about Ali (AS) and never stopped insulting him!

- Ansab al-Ashraf , vol. 2 , p. 161 , by Ahmad ibn Yahya ibn Jaber al-Buladhiri , ( died 279 A.H. ) , Died : 279 A.H.

Muqaira’s indifference toward insulting Imam Ali (AS) – with true reference

Riyah Ibne Harith informed me that Muqaira Ibne Shuba was sitting in the Great Mosque and people of Kufa were around him. Then a person named Said Ibne Zeid entered and he invited Said to sit next to him. Then a person from Kufa entered and turned to Muqaira and insulted someone.

Said asked “You, Muqaira! Who is this man insulting?”

He replied “Ali Ibne Abi Talib”.

Then he said “Muqaira (and repeated his name three times)! I see that companions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) are being insulted in your presence and you do not blame him or even have no bad feeling about that!!!”

The reference of this hadith is reliable.

- Al-Ahadith al-Mukhtarah , vol. 3 , p. 282 , No. 1083 - 1085 (Three tradition of the same themes mentioned,  all narrations is regarded correct)

Other evidences:

- Sunnan Abi Dawoud , vol. 4 , p. 212 , No. 4650 (mention the whole story without a name of Moghayrah)

- Musnaf Ibn Abi Shaibah , vol. 6 , p. 350 , no. 31946 .

- Fazael al -sahabah by ibn Hanbal, vol. 1 , p. 121 , No. 90 and p. 204 , No. 225 .

- Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal , vol. 1 , p. 187 , No. 1629 .

- Al-Sunnah by Ibn Abi Asem , vol. 2 , p. 619 , No. 1433 and 1434 .

- Ehteqad Ahl al-Sunnah al-Lalkaei , vol. 8 , p. 1411 , No. 2719 .

- Book al-Asma al-Mobhamah , khatib Baghdadi , vol. 7 , p. 489 , Hadith 225 Qais bin Alqamah .

6- Amro Ibne Al Aas

His insults to Imam Ali (AS) – with true reference

1- Then Amro Ibne Aas went over the pulpit and mentioned Ali (AS) and insulted him!

- Al-Mahjam al-kabir , vol. 3 , p. 71 , No. 2698 .

Heithami writes about this tradition:

This tradition is narrated by Tabarani who quoted his master, Zakariya, who is considered by Zahabi as a pioneer scientists of the science of tradition and he says “I see no matter with him” … other narrators of this tradition are narrators of the Sahihs.

- Majmah al-Zavaed , vol. 7 , p. 247 .

2- Amro Ibne Aas said “… You, Hassan! Do you know that your father was the first person who started the فتنه and asked for power? Did you see what God did to him?!”

- Ehlam al-Nas Bema Waqeha Lelbera Mecca Maha Bani al-Abbas , vol. 1 , p. 27 .

His insults to Bani Hashim

When Qanima, daughter of Qanim, heard that Muawiya and Amro Ibne Aas have insulted Bani Hashim, she said “You, people of Mecca! … Is Amro Ibne Aas among you?” Amro said “I am here”. She told him “Did you, who deserve to be insulted, insult Bani Hashim?”

- Al-Mahasen va al-Azdad , vol. 1 , p. 103 , Samt al-Nojom al-Awalemi , vol. 3 , p. 128 , al-Mahasen va al-Mosawi , vol. 1 , p. 73 .

7- Marwan

His insults to Imam Ali (AS)

1- It is quoted from Umair Ibne Ishaq that “Marwan was our ruler for some years and used to curse Ali (AS) in his speeches. Then he was dismissed and replaced by Said Ibne Al Aas. He was the ruler and he did not curse Ali (AS). Then, he was dismissed and Marwan came to power again and used to insult Ali (AS) again.

- Tarikh al-Islam Zahabi , vol. 4 , p. 228 , - al-Tohfah al-Latifah fi Tarikh al-Medina al-sharifah , vol. 1 , p. 400 , - al-Elal va Mahrefah al-Rejal Ahmad ibn Hanbal , vol. 3 , p. 176 , No. 4781 , - the history of the city of Damascus , vol. 21 , p. 129 , and vol. 57 , p. 243 .

2- Sad Ibne Malik went to Marwan … he insulted Ali (AS).

- Musnad al-Shashi , vol. 1 , p. 146 , No. 82 .

3- Marwan was among major causes of blockade of Othman … and when he was chosen as governor of Medina by Muawiya, he used to insult Ali (AS) every week over the pulpit.

- Al-Badayah va al-Nahayah , vol. 8 , p. 259 .

His insults to Imam Ali (AS), Fateme Zahra (AS), and Imam Hassan (AS)

2- It is quoted from Umair Ibne Ishaq that “Marwan was our ruler for some years and used to curse Ali (AS) in his speeches. Then he was dismissed and replaced by Said Ibne Al Aas. He was the ruler and he did not curse Ali (AS). Then, he was dismissed and Marwan came to power again and used to insult Ali (AS) again.

People said to Imam Hassan (AS) “Don’t you hear what he is saying?”, but he would not answer.

Hassan Ibne Ali (AS) used to come and sit in the Holy Prophet’s room and remain there until the end of Marwan’s speech in Friday salat every Friday. Then he would go to the mosque, say his salat, and then return to his family.

But Marwan was not happy with it and sent a gift to Hassan!!!

We were sitting with Hassan in his house that we were told “Someone is at the door”. Imam Hassan (AS) let him in. he came in and said “I am here on behalf of governor of Kufa and I have a word for you”!!!

Imam Hassan (AS) said “Bring it on”.

He said “Marwan said whatever he knew (as insult) to your father and you. He said ‘I know you not more than a mule that if asked about his mother, he would introduce her as horse’’!!!

Imam Hassan (AS) told him “I swear to Allah, I will not wipe off your sins by insulting you. And beware that we will meet each other in presence of God. If you told the truth, God will reward you for that and if you told a lie, God will punish you hardly. My grandfather was more respected by God that his grandson be compared to a mule”.

He got out and saw Hussein (AS) in a room. Hussein (AS) asked him about the reason that he came here. He replied “There was a letter which I was meant to deliver”. Imam Hussein (AS) told him “Whether you tell me what you took or I order to bit you so hard that you wait for its end”.

When Hassan (AS) saw them, he said “Let him go”.

Hussein (AS) said “I can’t”. Hassan (AS) said “Why?” Hussein (AS) said “Because I took an oath”. That man said “Marwan insulted Ali and you hardly” and said what he was supposed to transfer.

Hussein (AS) said “Your mother’s curse upon you if you do not tell him ‘Whatever you said upon you, your father, and your tribe’. And also tell him that I am true and its sign is that your shoulders are paralyzed due to the curse of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)”.

- Al-Mataleb al-Alyah , vol. 18 , p. 267 , No. 4457 , - the history of Islam Zahabi , vol. 5 , p. 231 .

He cursed Ahle Bait

It is quoted from Abu Yahya that “I was sitting with Hassan (AS), Hussein (AS), and Marwan … Then Marwan said ‘You are a cursed family!!!’”

- Sayr Ahlam al-Nebla , vol. 3 , p. 478 , - Al-Mahjam al-kabir , vol. 3 , p. 85 , - Majmah al-Zavaed , vol. 10 , p. 72 .

8- Basr Ibne Artat

When Basr Ibne Artat arrested Ziyad’s son, including Ubeidullah … he told them “whether your father comes to me or I will kill you”. Then he went over the pulpit and insulted Ali (AS) and disrespected him …

- Ansab al-Ashraf , vol. 1 , p. 216 .

9- Walid Ibne Aqaba

Then Walid Ibne Aqaba stood up and praised God and then said “You, Bani Hashim! You were Othman’s father-in-law! He was a good son-in-law to you, because you were relatives of the Holy Prophet (PBUH). He got close to you and respected you. But you rebelled against him and killed him. We wanted to kill your father (Ali (AS)), but God fled him from us! If we would kill him, that was no sin for us!”

- Ahlam al-Nas Bema Waqeh Lelbera Mecca Maha Bani al-Abbas , vol. 1 , p. 28 , by Muhammad Dyab al-Atlide , ( died 1100A.H ) , publisher ; Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Beirut / Lebanon – 1425 A.H. 2004 A.D , Edition : first , research by Muhammad Ahmad Abdul Aziz Salem .

10- Atabat Ibne Abi Sufyan

Then Ataba Ibne Abi Sufyan stood up and said “You, Hassan! Your father rebelled against Othman and killed him out of his jealousy and for worldly desires! Then God took khilafat and the world away from him! We wanted to kill your father, but God killed him!”

- Ahlam al-Nas Bema Waqeh Lelbera Mecca Maha Bani al-Abbas , vol. 1 , p. 28 , by Muhammad Dyab al-Atlide , ( died 1100A.H ) , publisher ; Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Beirut / Lebanon – 1425 A.H. 2004 A.D , Edition : first , research by Muhammad Ahmad Abdul Aziz Salem .

11- Abbas; Uncle of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)!

According to a tradition in Sahih Bukhari, Abbas and Imam Ali (AS) insulted one another!

Malik Ibne Aws says:

I was with Omar that a guard came to him and said “Do you let Othman, Abdul Rahman, Zubair, and Sad in?” He replied “Yes!”

They came in, saluted, and sat down. Then the guard came in and said “Do you let Ali (AS) and Ibne Abbas in?” He allowed those two to come in.

Abbas said “You, Commander of believers! You should judge between me and this oppressor (Ali Ibne Abi Talib)” and then they started to insult each other.

The attendants (Othman and his people) said “May the Commander of Believers rule between these two and release them from one another”.

- Sahih Bukhari , vol. 6 , p. 2663 , No. 6875 , By Muhammad ibn Ismail Abu Abdullah al-Bukhari al-Jafi , ( died 256 A.H ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar Ibn kasir , al-Yamama – Beirut – 1407 A.H. – 1987 A.D. , al-Tabaha : 3 , research by Dr. Mustafa Dib al-Bagha .

Muslim also quoted this tradition and says:

Abbas said “You, Commander of Believers! Rule between me and this liar, betrayer, wicked person!”

- Sahih Moslim , vol. 3 , p. 1377 , No. 1757 ; by Moslim ibn al-Hajjaj Abu al-Hussein al-Qushairi al-Neishaburi , ( died 261 A.H. ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar Ahya al-Tras al-Arabi – Beirut , research by Muhammad Fouad Abdul Baqi .

12- Abdullah Ibne Al Zubair Ibne Awam

1- One day, Ibne Zubair was speaking to a group of people. Meanwhile, he insulted Imam Ali (AS)! Muhammad Ibne Hanafiya, Imam Ali’s son, heard about this. he went to Abdullah Ibne Zubair and they put a seat in front of Abdullah Ibne Zubair for him. He went over the seat and said loudly “You, people of Quraish! Damn you! Should Ali (AS) be disrespected in your presence?”

- Moravej al-Zahab , vol. 1 , p. 382 , by Abu al-Hassan Ali ibn al-Hussein ibn Ali al-Masoudi , ( died : 346 A.H. ) , Died : 346 A.H.

- Sharh Nahjol – Balaghah , vol. 4 , p. 37 , by Abu Hamed Izz al-Din ibn Hobullah ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Abi al-Hadid al-Madaeni , ( died 655 A.H ) , publisher : Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Beirut / Lebanon – 1418 A.H. – 1998 A.D , Edition : first ,research by Muhammad Abdul karim al-Nimri .

- Jomohrah Khattab al-Arab vol. 2 p. 90 , by Ahmad Zaki sefvat , ( died : none ) , publisher : al-Maktabah al-Elmyah – Beirut – none , research by Bala .

2- Kathir Ibne Kathir Ibne Mutallib … was the person that when heard that Abdullah Ibne Zubair insulted Ahle Bait wrote these lines of poem:

May God curse the one who insults Ali (AS) … And insults Hussein (AS), our leaders and Imams!

- Mahjam al-Shoara , vol. 1 , p. 75 , by Abu Obaidullah ibn Muhammad ibn Umran al-Marzbani , ( died : 384 A.H ) , Death ; 384 A.H.

13- Cursing Imam Ali (AS) in Presence of One of Wives of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)

Ibne Abi Al Hadid mentioned Aswad Ibne Yazid and Masruq Ibne Ajda’ among the people who disrespected Imam Ali (AS) and writes:

Among these people were Aswad Ibne Yazid and Masruq Ibne Ajda’. Salame Ibne Kuhail narrated that these two went to one of wives of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and insulted Imam Ali (AS) in her presence!

- Sharh Nahjol – Balaghah , vol. 4 , p. 58 , by Abu Hamed Izz al-Din ibn Hobullah ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Abi al-Hadid al-Madaeni , ( died 655 A.H ) , publisher : Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Beirut / Lebanon – 1418 A.H. – 1998 A.D , Edition : first ,research by Muhammad Abdul karim al-Nimri .

Of course, it is not hidden to anyone that Masruq Ibne Ajda’ and Aswad Ibne Yazid were among the people who had frequent relationship with Aisha and when Masruq was a young boy, Aisha would take him to her house and used to treat him as his own son!

14- 18- Aba Al Aur, Zahhak Ibne Qais, Habib Ibne Muslima, Abu Musa Ashari

Ibne Abi Al Hadid says:

In his morning and sunset (Maqrib) salat, Ali used to say in his Qonut (a part of his salat) “May God curse Muawiya, Amro Ibne Aas, Muqaira, Walid Ibne Aqaba, Aba Al Aur, Zahhak Ibne Qais, Basar Ibne Artat, Habib Ibne Muslima, Abu Musa Ashari, and Marwan Ibne Hakam”. They, too, used to curse Imam Ali (AS) in Qonut of their salats!

- Sharh Nahjol – Balaghah , vol. 4 , p. 47 , by Abu Hamed Izz al-Din ibn Hobullah ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Abi al-Hadid al-Madaeni , ( died 655 A.H ) , publisher : Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Beirut / Lebanon – 1418 A.H. – 1998 A.D , Edition : first ,research by Muhammad Abdul karim al-Nimri .

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Answering Questions about Cursing and Concluding from the Holy Quran and Traditions

In this part of the article, we will conclude what we observed in Sunni traditions and will mention four important questions about cursing which have been discussed in Sunni books and try to find an appropriate answer for that:

1- Are we allowed to curse someone who is cursed by the Holy Prophet (PBUH)? Or is this act of cursing specified to the Holy Prophet (PBUH)?

2- If we do not curse, we will not be taken to the hell, but if we curse, maybe we will be taken to the hell.

3- Is the tradition which says “If the Holy Prophet (PBUH) cursed someone who did not deserve it, that curse will turn into mercy for that person” true?

4- Will angels defend someone who is cursed?

1- Are We Allowed to Curse Someone Who Is Cursed by the Holy Prophet (PBUH)?

Some of Sunnis believe that if God or the Holy Prophet (PBUH) had cursed someone, it is not permission for others to insult that person. That is because perhaps permission of insulting the person is limited to God and His Messenger. To defend this idea, they say:

For example when a king insults his advisors, other people and servants should not and are not allowed to insult that advisor!

Answer:

1- People’s cursing is a request from God about His curse.

As it was mentioned earlier in this article, cursing means to ask God to stop his mercy upon someone. That means the curser wants God to ban the cursed person from His mercy.

So, this critique is acceptable when we are talking about insulting. That is, in case of the given example, when a king insults his advisor, others are not allowed to insult him. But what we discussed here was about cursing and not insulting!

Then, according to meaning of curse, this critique is not acceptable!

2- In Quran and Tradition of the Holy Prophet (PBUH), people were asked to curse a group of sinners.

In some instances of the Holy Quran and tradition of the Holy Prophet (PBUH), there are cases that show cursing is allowed to those except for God:

God says:

Those who conceal the clear (Signs) We have sent down, and the Guidance, after We have made it clear for the people in the Book,-on them shall be Allah’s curse, and the curse of those entitled to curse,- (Sura Al Baqara, verse 159)

In another verse, He says:

Those who reject Faith, and die rejecting,- on them is Allah’s curse, and the curse of angels, and of all mankind; (Sura Al Baqara, verse 161)

Also He says in the Holy Quran:

How shall Allah Guide those who reject Faith after they accepted it and bore witness that the Messenger was true and that Clear Signs had come unto them? but Allah guides not a people unjust. Of such the reward is that on them (rests) the curse of Allah, of His angels, and of all mankind;- (Sura Al Imran, verse 86 and 87)

Also in Sahih Bukhari, there is a tradition from the Holy Prophet (PBUH) who says:

May God, His angels, and all people curse the one who is a heretic or shelters him in Medina.

May God, His angels, and all people curse the one who chooses another master without permission of his real master.

May God, His angels, and all people curse the one who breaks sheltering of a Muslim to a believer of God (who is non-Muslim).

- Sahih al-Bukhari , vol. 6 , p. 2482 , No. 6374 , book al-Faraez , chapter: إثم من تبرأ من مواليه

Muslim, too, quotes the Holy Prophet (PBUH) in his Sahih:

God, His angels, and all people may curse the one who introduces himself son of someone except his father, and the man who offers his service to someone but his real master.

- Sahih Moslim , vol. 2 , p. 994 , No. 1370 , book al-Haj , chapter : فضل المدينة

Hakim Neishabouri quoted the Holy Prophet (PBUH) who said:

May God, His angels, and all people curse the one who مدفوع کردن on the path of Muslims.

- Al-Mostadrak alal – Sahihain , vol. 1 , p. 296 , No. 665 , book al-Taharah , ( Albani said that it is a weak narration in al-Selselah al-Zahifah , No. 5151 .)

Also Muttaqi Hindi quoted the Holy Prophet (PBUH), in his Kinz Al Aamaal, who said:

May God, His angels, and all people curse those who violate my rights and prevent my family (from doing what they should do).

- Kanz al-Ahmal , vol. 16 , p. 42 , No. 44057 .

3- Explicit order to curse some sinners

In Sunni traditions, there are several cases that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) explicitly ordered curse of some people.

Ahmad Ibne Hanbal quotes:

I heard Abdullah Ibne Omar who said “The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said ‘On the Apocalypse, there are men who ride on horses, but they (only) look like men!!! They stay in mosques, but their wives are covered while they are naked. Their heads are thin like hump of camels of Khurasan. So, curse them because they are cursed’”.

- Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal , vol. 2 , p. 223 , No. 7083 , Musnad Abdullah ibn umar ,  - Al-Mostadrak alal – Sahihain , vol. 4 , p. 483 , No. 8346 , book al- Fetn va al-Mulahem , - Sahih Ibn Hiban , vol. 13 , p. 64 , No. 5753 -ذكر الاخبار عن وصف النساء اللاتي يستحققن اللعن بأفعالهن (الباني اين روايت را در صحيح و ضعيف الجامع الصغير ش7247 صحيح مي داند)

In this tradition, the Holy Prophet (PBUH) ordered others to curse a group of people and documents himself with this matter that God has cursed them. He says “curse them because they are cursed”. From this tradition, this can be derived that a person who is cursed by God should be cursed by people, too.

4- Being cursed by the Holy Prophet (PBUH) means others can curse that person

Some of Sunni scholars consider curse of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) as permission for others to insult that person. As Muslim writes in his Sahih:

Khifaf Ibne Aima (one of companions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)) said “The Holy Prophet (PBUH) went to Roku’ (a part of salat) and stood up again and said ‘The tribe of Assiya disobeyed God and His Messenger. May God curse Bani Lihyan, Ril, and Zakwan’. Then he did his Sajda (and continued his salat)”.

Khifaf says that because of this matter, cursing the pagans was permitted.

- Sahih Moslim , vol. 1 , p. 470 , No. 679 .

Khifaf, who was a companion of the Holy Prophet (PBUH), says that “because these pagan tribes were cursed by the Holy Prophet (PBUH), other companions used this matter as a sign of permission of their curse upon those people”.

5- Cursing by the Holy Prophet (PBUH) is a model for other people  

Some of famous Sunni leaders imitated the Holy Prophet (PBUH) in cursing some people and cursed them, too. It is mentioned in Muslim’s Sahih:

It is quoted from Abdullah Ibne Masoud who said “God curses a woman who tattoos others and a woman who gets tattoo on her body. Also He curses a woman who shaves other women and a woman who lets her body shaved. God will also curse a woman who reforms her teeth for beauty (and puts a gap between the front ones) and God curses those who try to make a change in the creation”.

A woman from Bani Asad Tribe heard this. She was a woman who used to read Quran. She went to Abdullah Ibne Masoud and said “I heard that you have cursed such women”. He replied “Why shouldn’t I curse someone who the Holy Prophet (PBUH) has cursed? We are told to do so in the Holy Quran”. The woman asked “Where in the Holy Quran such a matter is mentioned (that we should curse someone who is cursed by the Holy Prophet (PBUH)), while I have read the Holy Quran completely?” He replied “You have seen and read that. God has said ‘Do whatever the Holy Prophet (PBUH) brought for you and abstain from whatever he banned you from’”.     

- Sahih Moslim , vol. 3 , p. 1678 , No. 2125 , book al-Lebas va al-Zinah , chapter : تحريم فعل الواصلة والمستوصلة والواشمة والمستوشمة والنامصة والمتنمصة والمتفلجات والمغيرات خلق الله - Sahih al-Bukhari , vol. 4 , p. 1853 , No. 4604 , book al-Tafsir , chapter: وما آتاكم الرسول فخذوه And vol. 5 , p. 2218 , No. 5595 , and p. 2219 , No. 5599 , book al-Lebas , chapter المتنمصات

This tradition is mentioned in Sahih Bukhari, too:

It is quoted from Abdullah Ibne Masoud that “May God curse … why shouldn’t I curse someone who is cursed by the Holy Prophet (PBUH)?”

- Sahih al-Bukhari , vol. 7 , p. 62 .

In another tradition, it is said:

May God curse … why shouldn’t I curse someone who is cursed by the Holy Prophet (PBUH)?

- Sahih al-Bukhari , vol. 7 , p. 63 .

These traditions show that companions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) used his cursing as a sign of permission for insulting that person (who was cursed by the Holy Prophet (PBUH)).

2- If We Do Not Curse, We Will Not Be Taken to the Hell, but If We Curse, Maybe We Will Be Taken to the Hell

Now that permission of cursing is proved, some of Sunnis claim that if we do not curse, we will not taken to the hell, but if we curse someone, we may be taken to the hell because of this curse!

Answer:

1- We are ordered by God to follow all traditions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and cursing is one of them.

God, the Almighty, says in the Holy Quran:

What Allah has bestowed on His Messenger (and taken away) from the people of the townships,- belongs to Allah,- to His Messenger and to kindred and orphans, the needy and the wayfarer; In order that it may not (merely) make a circuit between the wealthy among you. So take what the Messenger assigns to you, and deny yourselves that which he withholds from you. And fear Allah; for Allah is strict in Punishment. (Sura Al Hashr, verse 7) 

As it was mentioned in the earlier part, according to traditions of the Sahihs, the companions used this verse for cursing others and said that if the Holy Prophet (PBUH) cursed someone, we, too, should curse him:

Abdullah Ibne Masoud said “Why shouldn’t we curse someone who is cursed by the Holy Prophet (PBUH)? This is what we are ordered to do in the Holy Quran”. The woman asked “Where in the Holy Quran is it mentioned (that we should curse the person whom the Holy Prophet (PBUH)) and I have not seen it?!”

He replied “You have read it and seen it in the Holy Quran. God said ‘Take whatever the Messenger brought to you and avoid whatever he banned you from’”.

- Sahih Moslim , vol. 3 , p. 1678 , No. 2125 , book al-Lebas va al-Zinah , chapter : تحريم فعل الواصلة والمستوصلة والواشمة والمستوشمة والنامصة والمتنمصة والمتفلجات والمغيرات خلق الله - Sahih al-Bukhari , vol. 4 , p. 1853 , No. 4604 , book al-Tafsir , chapter: وما آتاكم الرسول فخذوه- And vol. 5 , p. 2218 , No. 5595 , and p. 2219 , No. 5599 , book al-Lebas , chapter المتنمصات

This tradition is mentioned in Sahih Bukhari, too:

It is quoted from Abdullah Ibne Masoud that “May God curse … why shouldn’t I curse someone who is cursed by the Holy Prophet (PBUH)?”

- Sahih al-Bukhari , vol. 7 , p. 62 .

In another tradition, it is said:

It is quoted from Ibne Masoud … why shouldn’t I curse someone who is cursed by the Holy Prophet (PBUH)?

- Sahih al-Bukhari , vol. 7 , p. 63 .

The companions’ confession to this verse shows that cursing is one of orders that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) learned us about it.

2- According to the Holy Prophet (PBUH), the one who is accursed (and deserves to be cursed) must be cursed.

Ahmad Ibne Hanbal quotes the Holy Prophet (PBUH) in his Musnad:

On the Apocalypse, there are men who ride on horses, but they (only) look like men!!! They stay in mosques, but their wives are covered while they are naked. Their heads are thin like hump of camels of Khurasan. So, curse them because they are cursed!

- Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal , vol. 2 , p. 223 , No. 7083 , Musnad Abdullah ibn umar ,  - Al-Mostadrak alal – Sahihain , vol. 4 , p. 483 , No. 8346 , book al- Fetn va al-Mulahem , - Sahih Ibn Hiban , vol. 13 , p. 64 , No. 5753   ذكر الاخبار عن وصف النساء اللاتي يستحققن اللعن بأفعالهن (الباني اين روايت را در صحيح و ضعيف الجامع الصغير ش7247 صحيح مي داند)

In this tradition, the Holy Prophet (PBUH) ordered the curse of some special people and they are mentioned as people who deserve to be cursed and he says “curse them because they are curse”. This can be understood that those who deserve to be cursed should be cursed and cursing is not mentioned as something which is allowed!

Furthermore, this tradition is in form of an order and it looks like something obligatory. It means not only cursing is Mustahab (and recommended), but also it is something obligatory and if someone avoids it, then he will go to the hell.

Even if we consider the message of this tradition as a recommendation of cursing (although it is not so), according to idea of Sunni and Shiite scholars, leaving something recommended and opposing that is not allowed. Even, according to Sunnis, abandoner of the tradition, purposefully, will be punished for his act.

Ibne Khazima quoted the frequent tradition of “Marriage is my tradition …”, which is narrated by several Shiite and Sunni scholars, in this form:

How harsh those who leave the tradition of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) for neglecting them will be punished and those who leave his tradition on purpose (and not accidentally) are sinner.

- Sahih Ibn Khuzaimah , vol. 3 , p. 258 , No. 2024 , chapter 99 , by Muhammad ibn Isaac ibn khuzaimah Abu Bakr al-Salami al-Neishaburi , ( died : 311 A.H ) , PUBLISHER : al-Maktab al-Islami – Beirut – 1390 A.H. – 1970 A.D , Research by Dr. Muhammad Mustafa al-Ahzami .

As it was proved in this article, and this tradition clearly shows, cursing was a permanent tradition of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and is considered as what we are obliged to follow and leaving that will result in punishment! This is exactly in contradiction with what was raised in the question that cursing might lead to going to the hell!

3- Are We Allowed Only to Curse Indirectly and Those Who Have Bad Attributes And It Is Forbidden In Other Ways?

Some of Sunnis believe that cursing is allowed only when you are completely informed that a person died while he was pagan, like Abu Lahab, or when you curse a person through his characteristics, for example you say “may God curse the thief”. That is because perhaps that person, who rubbed something, had repented and died as Muslim and this curse will return to you, as curser. But if you curse him through a quality or characteristics, in fact you have cursed the one who enjoys such quality. So, if an individual is not included, it refers to others with this quality and you have nothing to do with that.

If you curse someone who does not deserve it, it will return to yourself.

The reason for such a claim is a tradition which is mentioned in several different Sunni books and, to Sunnis, its reference is reliable:

I heard Abu Durda quoting the Holy Prophet (PBUH) who said “Truly, when a servant of Allah cursed someone, this curse goes up to the skies and then doors of sky will close and his ways will be shot. Then it goes back to the earth and the doors of the earth will close, too. It will go to the left and to the right, but will find no paths. Then it will go to the person who is cursed. If he deserves to be cursed, it will work and if not, it will infect the person who cursed”.

- Sunnan Abi Dawoud , vol. 4 , p. 277 , No. 4905 , chapter في اللعن  (Albani is regarded it as a sound narration in Sahih and zahif Sunnan Abi Dawoud)

Ibne Hajar’s word

Ibne Hajar used this tradition and concluded that even cursing Yazid is not allowed! That is because perhaps Yazid had repented and died as a believer!!!

Cursing is false when it is about a specific person. An individual, even a corrupt person, should not be cursed, like Yazid Ibne Muawiya or a person who opposed Islam and he is dead now and you do not know whether he died while he was pagan or not. That is because he may have finished (his life) through Islam. That is in opposition with those people who dies while they were pagan, like Pharaoh, Abu Jahl, Abu Lahab, and people like them.

But this that some people curse Yazid is a bold and dangerous action. That is why Qazali banned insulting Yazid although he was rude toward the great sins and limitations (and committed great sins and violated limitations of Islam)!!!

- Al-Zavajer , vol. 2 , p. 638 .

Answer:

1- The Holy Prophet (PBUH) cursed some people by name and directly!

As it was mentioned earlier, the Holy Prophet (PBUH) cursed some people or tribes directly and by name. This act of the Holy Prophet (PBUH), according to Sunnis, is a sign of permission of cursing people who may die as Muslim! Even in some cases the Holy Prophet (PBUH) said “I want to curse him so strongly that my curse does not leave him even in his grave”!!!

Abu Durda’ quoted the Holy Prophet (PBUH) saw a servant who was standing by a tent who was pregnant. Then he said “Apparently the master of this servant has mated her”. They replied “Yes!”

Then the Holy Prophet (PBUH) said “I want to curse him in a way that until his death he cannot release himself from my curse. How can he claim this child (as his son while he mated his servant before her being non-pregnant is proved! Perhaps this is not his son and he considers him as his son)? Perhaps it is not his child. How can he take him as his slave (while he might be his own son) and taking him as slave is not allowed?

- Sahih Moslim , vol. 2 , p. 1065 , No. 1441 , book al-Nekah , chapter :تَحْرِيمِ وَطْءِ الْحَامِلِ الْمَسْبِيَّةِ

Sunnis’ answer: the Holy Prophet (PBUH) had foreknowledge! He could realize who will die unfaithful!

Ibne Hajar rejects this answer of the Shiites and says:

But those who were cursed by the Holy Prophet (PBUH) by their names; they were tribes of Ra’l, Zakwan, and Assiya who rebelled against the Holy Prophet (PBUH). They were three Arab tribes, perhaps, the Holy Prophet (PBUH) knew that all of them or majority of them would die as pagan and that is why he cursed them!!!

- Al-Zavajer , vol. 2 , p. 640 .

Answering Ibne Hajar’s justification

A- Not all Sunnis consider the Holy Prophet (PBUH) to have foreknowledge

According to Sunni criteria, this answer is totally rejected and there is no need to prove it. It is interesting that those who believe in “inflexibility of texture” and “foreknowledge” here used both of them together: here all the tribe is not meant and the Holy Prophet (PBUH) cursed only those who would die as pagan. And also they say “The Holy Prophet (PBUH) knew that that all of them or majority of them will die as pagan”!!!

B- Did those companions who were cursed directly by the Holy Prophet (PBUH) die as pagan?

In the part about cursing by the Holy Prophet (PBUH), we remarked some traditions that, according to Sunni texts, the Holy Prophet (PBUH) cursed a companion with his name! Could Ibne Hajar claim that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) knew that this companion would die as pagan?!

2- The companions cursed special people

We imagine that what they claim about the Holy Prophet’s foreknowledge is acceptable, while we believe in that and they do not consider such a quality for the Holy Prophet (PBUH). We accept this! How would they justify the similar situation in which a companion cursed another person? What answer do they have for this?

Did companions, too, have foreknowledge that the person whom they were cursing would die as pagan? And we see that sometimes a companion cursed another companion. In this situation, problem doubles!

3- If (false) curse returns to the one who did it, why then Sunnis prevent Shiites from cursing?

If Sunnis really believe that cursing Khalifas will not affect them since they were really religious people and were of high rank in this regard, so this curse will return to Shiites and there is no reason to worry. That will result in Shiites (who are considered as enemies of Islam by Sunnis) getting away from mercy of God. So, Sunnis should not worry about that!

4- Is the tradition which says “If the Holy Prophet (PBUH) cursed someone who did not deserve it, that curse will turn into mercy for that person” true?

In Sahih Muslim, it is written:

About those who were cursed or insulted by the Holy Prophet (PBUH) while that person did not deserve that, this curse wipes his sins off and turns to mercy of God for him!!!

And then he quotes thirteen traditions with this content!!! Here is only one example:

It is quoted from Abu Harira who quoted the Holy Prophet (PBUH) who said “O, God! I am a human being. Then whenever I insulted or cursed a Muslim or whipped him, then you consider this act of mine as your mercy to him and clean his sins”!!! 

- Sahih Moslim , vol. 4 , p. 2007 .

Are these traditions true and reliable?

Answer:

In interpretation and justification of these traditions, even Sunnis were unsuccessful. In there, they accused the Holy Prophet (PBUH) of using vulgar words and insulting some companions without any logical reason!!! In the text of the tradition we see the word “cursed him or insulted him”. This curse means using vulgar words and not damning a person. It is interesting that in the end of this chapter, he quotes a tradition in which the Holy Prophet (PBUH) cursed Muawiya and pretends that because Muawiya did not deserve to be insulted, so this was as a mercy of God for Muawiya and this is a virtue for him!!!

And even some Sunnis who cannot find any virtue for Muawiya, refer to the Holy Prophet’s curses upon him and consider these curses as a virtue for him!!!

And because of this, to show virtues of Muawiya, Muslim quotes this tradition in his Sahih and then mentions the tradition in which the Holy Prophet (PBUH) cursed Muawiya. That shows he was so virtuous!!!

- Fosol Menal – Sirah Ibn Kasir , vol. 1 , p. 304 .

Someone whose words are divine and has the best of behavior, does not curse someone unjustly!

We Shiites consider all this debate in contradiction with the text of the Holy Quran. God says in the Holy Quran that all deeds, thoughts, and words of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) were divine and taken from inspiration. Also, in the Holy Quran, the Holy Prophet (PBUH) is introduced as someone with the best behavior! Can we believe and accept that such a person insults or cursed another person out of passion and anger while he did not deserve it?

The verse “And thou (standest) on an exalted standard of character”

God in the Holy Quran says:

And thou (standest) on an exalted standard of character. (Sura Al Qalam, verse 4)

And a person who is introduced in the Holy Quran as owner of the best characteristics will never make such oral mistakes.

As it was mentioned earlier, Qartabi writes in interpretation of this verse:

In fact, the word “temper” refers to set of acts that people force themselves to behave in that manner.

It is quoted from Aisha who was asked about the prophet’s behavior. Then he read some verse of the Holy Quran beginning with “Truly believers …” and the next ten verses. Then she said “No one was as good-tempered as the Holy Prophet (PBUH). That is why God said ‘You have the best of tempers’. There is no good behavior unless the Holy Prophet (PBUH) has the most part of that. It is quoted from the Holy Prophet (PBUH) who said ‘God bred me in the best possible way and told me to be merciful and kind in giving orders and avoid the ignorant. When I accepted this divine order, he told me ‘You have the best of the behavior’”.

- Al-Jameh al-Ahkam al-Quran, ( Tafsir by al-Qurtabi , vol. 18 , p. 227 ) , by Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Ansari al-Qurtabi , publisher : Dar al-Shoab – Cairo .

Can we claim that such person who is pioneer in good temper and manner uses vulgar and bad words and insults others?

The Verses “Nor does he say (aught) of (his own) Desire. It is no less than inspiration sent down to him”

Nor does he say (aught) of (his own) Desire. It is no less than inspiration sent down to him (Sura Al Najm, verses 3 and 4)

There are many traditions in Sunni books which show that all words that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) uttered were divine inspirations.

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) says “Whatever I say, at the time of happiness or anger, is true”.

Many Sunni scholars have quoted the Holy Prophet (PBUH), with almost same content, that he said “In happiness or anger, whatever I say is from God (and divine)”.

It is quoted from Abdullah Ibne Omar that “I used to hear, write, and memorize whatever the Holy Prophet (PBUH) said. It continued until the time Quraish stopped me from doing so and said ‘Do you write whatever Muhammad says? He is a person who speaks in his happiness and anger (and might speak out of his passion)’. So, I stopped writing and transferred what they said to the Holy Prophet (PBUH). He replied ‘Write that I swear to Allah that nothing but the truth comes out of it’ and he pointed to his mouth”.

- Najm surah , v 3 and 4 .

- Al-Mostadrak alal – Sahihain , vol. 1 , p. 187 , No. 359 , by Muhammad ibn Abdullah Abu Abdullah al-Hakim al-Neishaburi , ( died : 405 A.H ) , Publisher : Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Beirut – 1411 A.H. – 1990 A.D , Edition : first , research by Mustafa Abdul Qader Ata .

- Musnaf Ibn Abi Shaibah , vol. 5 , p. 313 , no. 26428 , by Abu Bakr Abdullah ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Shaibah al-kufi , ( died 235 A.H ) , Publisher : Maktabah al-Roshd – Riyadh – 1409 A.H. , edition : first , research by kamal Yusuf al-Hout .

 - Masael al-Imam Ahmad Revayah Ibna Abi al-Fazl Saleh , vol. 2 , p. 372 , No. 1033 , author name : ( died 266 A.H ) , Dar al-Nashr : al-Dar al-Elmyah – India – 1408 A.H. – 1988 A.D.

- Al-Bahr Al-zakhar (Musnad Bazzar) , vol. 6 , p. 437 , No. 2470 , by : Abu Bakr Ahmad ibn Amr ibn Abdul khaleq al-Bazzar , ( died 292 A.H ) , Publisher : institute of Uloom al-Quran , Maktabah al-Uloom va al-Hokm – Beirut , al-Medina – 1409 A.H. , Edition : 1 , research by Dr. Mahfouz al-Rahman Zeinullah .

- Al-Mohaddes al-Fasel Bein al-Ravi va al-Wahi , vol. 1 , p. 365 , 366 , by : al-Hassan ibn Abdul Rahman al-Ramhormozi , ( died : 360 A.H ) , Publisher : Dar al-Fekr – Beirut – 1404 A.H , Edition : third , research by Dr. Muhammad Ajaj Khatib .

This tradition is considered true by Albani in Al Silsila Al Sahiha, number 1532.

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) says “I say nothing but it is put to my mouth from the unseen”.

Ahmad Ibne Hanbal narrates this tradition with four evidences from Abi Imama:

It is quoted from Abi Imama that he heard the Holy Prophet (PBUH) who said “With intercession of one man among my people, who is not a prophet, groups such as tribes of Rabia’ and Muzr will go to Paradise”! A person asked “You, Messenger of God! Do you know about Rabia’ and Muzr?”

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) replied “I uttered the words that they were put in my mouth from the unknown (inspiration)”.

- Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal vol. 5 p. 257 No. 22269 and 22270 and p. 261, No. 22304 and p. 267 No. 22351, author name: by Ahmad ibn Hanbal Abu Abdullah al-Shaibani, (died: 241 A.H), Dar al-Nashr: institute of Qurtabah – Egypt.

This tradition is corrected by Albani in Sahih Al Tarqib wa Al Tarhib and Sahih wa Zaif Jame’ Saqir.

- Sahih al-Tarqib va al-Tarhib , No. 3647 , - sahih va zahif al-Jameh al-saghir , No. 9494 .

Heithami, too, considered this hadith as valid in Majma’ Al Zawaid:

 رواه أحمد والطبراني بأسانيد ورجال أحمد وأحد اسانيد الطبراني رجالهم رجال الصحيح غير عبدالرحمن بن ميسرة وهو ثقة

-  Majmah al-Zavaed va Manbah al-Favaed , vol. 10 , p. 381 , by Ali ibn Abi Bakr al-Haithami , ( died 807 A.H ) , Publisher : Dar al-Ryan Leltras / Dar al-ketab al-Arabi – Cairo , Beirut – 1407 A.H .

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) says “I say nothing but the truth”.

Many Sunni scholars such as Ahmad Ibne Hanbal, Bukhari, and Termezi have narrated this hadith from the Holy Prophet (PBUH) that “I say nothing but the truth”.

It is quoted from Abu Harira who quoted the Holy Prophet (PBUH) who said “I say nothing but the truth!” Some of the companions said “You, Messenger of God! Something you joke with us!” The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said “But I only tell the truth”.

- Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal vol. 2 p. 340 No. 8462 and p. 360, No. 8708 , author name: by Ahmad ibn Hanbal Abu Abdullah al-Shaibani, (died: 241 A.H), Dar al-Nashr: institute of Qurtabah – Egypt.

- Al-Adab al-Mofrad , vol. 1 , p. 102 , No. 265 , By Muhammad ibn Ismail Abu Abdullah al-Bukhari al-Jafi , ( died 256 A.H ) , Dar al-Nashr : Dar al-Bashaer al-Islamia – Beirut – 1409 A.H. – 1989 A.D , Edition : third , research by Muhammad Fouad Abdul Baqi .

After narrating this hadith, Termezi writes:

Abu Isa said this hadith is true.

- Al-Jameh al-Sahih Sunnan al-Tirmidhi , vol. 4 , p. 357 , No. 1990 , by : Muhammad ibn Isa Abu Isa al-Tirmidhi al-Salami , ( died : 279 A.H ) , Publisher : Dar Ahya al-Tras al-Arabi – Beirut - - , research by Ahmad Muhammad Shaker va Akharun .

Albani, in Al Silsila Al Sahiha, number 1726, validates this hadith.

Conclusion:

With abundance of so many hadiths, which are approved by Sunni scholars, in which the Holy Prophet (PBUH) says that he says the truth even if he is angry, can we trust in some hadiths that only want to validate some of companions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and discredit the Holy Prophet (PBUH)?!

Sunnis’ justification about these traditions

Some of Sunni scholars who did not want to discredit the Holy Prophet (PBUH) with such hadiths, tried to justify these traditions. Nuwi, the most important interpreter of Sahih Muslim, in his book Sharh Al Nuwi Ala Sahih Muslim, vol. 16, p 152 rises two questions about this hadith and then answers them:

A- How is it that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) cursed or insulted someone who did not deserve it?

B- What does it mean that the Holy Prophet (PBUH), like ordinary people, gets angry?

The first critique

If it is said that how is it possible that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) curses someone who did not deserve to be cursed or insulted, our answer is the one which was proposed by other scholars.

Nuwi’s answer to the first critique

And then he rises these two issues:

A- The cursed people apparently deserved to be cursed, but they are not worthy of being cursed and God knows this.

What the Holy Prophet (PBUH) means by “those who do not deserve to be cursed” is that a person does not deserve to be cursed by God, but because of some religious facts and evidences, it is proved to us that he deserves to be insulted or cursed. But still in fact he does not deserve it. And the Holy Prophet (PBUH) should act according to what is seen and God, the Almighty, knows about the inner and inside of people.

B- These are some frequent sayings among Arabs and they do not really refer to cursing someone.

 

Here, by insult and curse, some words which were frequent among Arabs of that era are meant and they used to use these words aimlessly in their routine words. There were expression such as “May you cannot move your hands anymore” or “May I am beheaded” or other ones which were used in some traditions such as “May your life lengthens” or what was said about Muawiya that “You never feel well-fed”. Here cursing is not meant and they are not really a curse!

And because the Holy Prophet (PBUH) thought that they may come true in some occasions, so he asked God to turn these so-called curses into mercy for those who are addressed.

These kinds of curses rarely were uttered by the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and the Holy Prophet (PBUH) was no a person who uses vulgar words and insults others and he would not say anything to revenge others.

And even there is a tradition that some people told him to curse the tribe of Dus. Then he said “May God lead (people of) Dus” and he also said “May God lead my people since they do not understand”.

The second critique

Then Nuwi rises this problem that how is it possible that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) does something wrong when he is angry, just as ordinary people would!

And his word that said “I get angry like ordinary people”, apparently we may think that his insults and curses are out of his passion and anger. The answer is what Maziri has said.

Nuwi’s answer to the second critique

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) wanted to say that his cursing, insulting, and whipping others are among the matters that God gave him the option to choose between two acts. But his anger for God had forced him to curse, insult, or whip others and this anger is not something out of religion.

Summary of what Sunni scholars say in response to this tradition according to Nuwi

The first critique: Did the Holy Prophet (PBUH) insult someone who did not deserve to be insulted?

The First Answer: The Holy Prophet (PBUH) was responsible for what was visible and apparently, that person deserved to be cursed.

That person apparently deserves to be insulted, but in fact he does not. And the Holy Prophet (PBUH) is responsible for what is seen. Because of this, he asked God that if a person was cursed and he really did not deserve to be cursed, that curse changes into mercy of God to that person.

The second answer: The Holy Prophet (PBUH), according to the tradition of Arabs, used to say offensive words and insult others unaware.

The Holy Prophet (PBUH), according to the tradition of Arabs, used to say offensive words and insult others unaware. Then, he was worried that these unwanted and unserious insults come true and asked God to turn them into mercy.

The second critique: Does this matter that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) says “I get angry like everyone” show that he insulted someone because of his anger and out of passion?

Answer: The Holy Prophet’s anger was only in case of bringing about divine rules.

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) had the option two choose between two acts; insulting or a softer reaction. But anger for divine matters and religious orders forced him to insult the person.

Analysis of the first part of Nuwi’s word

Nuwi believed that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) is responsible for what could be seen and that person apparently deserved to be insulted. If we accept this answer that “the Holy Prophet (PBUH) is responsible for what could be seen and that man apparently deserved to be insulted”, so these conclusions may be drawn which are not acceptable for Sunnis:

A- Muslims can curse other people only out of their own interpretation.

All Muslims can curse others even directly according to what is seen and according to Quran and Tradition. This is what was proved in Sunni books and in the Sahihs that if the Holy Prophet (PBUH) had cursed someone, other Muslims can curse him, too. Then, when the Holy Prophet (PBUH) cursed someone according to what is seen, this is allowed to other Muslims to act like this.

So, a person who has one of over one hundred qualities, which were earlier mentioned in this article, he can be directly cursed by Muslims.

B- Cursing must be considered as a fixed tradition of the Holy Prophet (PBUH).

According to what was answered, cursing those who apparently deserve to be cursed was a fixed and permanent tradition of the Holy Prophet (PBUH), with this condition that he really meant to. If that person does not really deserve to be cursed, this curse will turn to mercy of God to that person. Then, if a person curses some people and really meant to do it (and curse that person), he has followed the tradition of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and there is no contradiction between what he did and what the Holy Prophet’s tradition was, and not what Sunnis introduce as tradition of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)!

Analysis of the second part of Nuwi’s word

This answer that “The Holy Prophet (PBUH) insulted others unaware and that was out of habit” is not acceptable through several reasons:

A- If it was something one-time and non permanent, it should have not been repeated.

If these particular insults (and not every insult) were out of habit, then why cursing the tribes of Ra’l, Zakwan, and Assiya continued for one full month? And he cursed them in Qonut of his salat?!!!

It is quoted from Anas that “The Holy Prophet (PBUH) used to curse tribes of Ra’l and Zakwan in the Qonut of his salat for a month and used to say that Assiya had rebelled against God and His Messenger”.

- Sahih al-Bukhari , vol. 4 , p. 1503 , No. 3868 , book al-Maghazi , chapter : غزوة الرجيع

B- If these words did not intend cursing, why did then it come true?

If these curses were not purposefully and out of habit and the Holy Prophet (PBUH) prayed for their invalidation, then why did they come true?

The prophet’s curse came true about tribes of Lahyan, Ra’l, Zakwan, Assiya

About the tribes of Lahyan, Ra’l, Zakwan, and Assiya it is said that:

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) cursed some people in Qonut of his salat and said “May God curse Lahyan, Ra’l, Zakwan, and Assiya who rebelled against God and His Messenger”.

This curse of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) led to their annihilation and none remained alive from these tribes.

- Sharh Moshkel al-Asar , vol. 9 , p. 328 .

The prophet’s curse came true about Muawiya

Bilazari said:

One day the Holy Prophet (PBUH) ordered the presence of Muawiya, but he delayed. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said “May he never feels well-fed”. That is why he always used to say that “I always have the Holy Prophet’s curse with me”.

That was why he used to eat seven times or even more in a day!

- Fotoh al-Baladan – al-Buladhiri – vol. 3 p. 582 , research :  Publication and causing indexing by Dr. Salah al-Din al-Monjad , publisher : Maktabah al-Nehzah Egypt – Cairo .

Also Tabari said:

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said “May he never feels well-fed”! That was why he never felt so and used to say “I swear to Allah, I do not stop eating for feeling complete, I do so because of being tired”.

- Tarikh al-Tabari , vol. 8 , p. 186 , Research : Review and correct and adjust : : A group of eminent scientists , Published by: institute of al-Ahlamy Lelmatbohat - Beirut - Lebanon.

Also Zahabi says:

After the third time (that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) called for Muawiya and he did not show up), the Holy Prophet (PBUH) said “May you never feel well-fed”. And he never felt complete!

- Sayr Ahlam al-Nebla , vol. 3 , p. 123 .

He also says in another place:

Muawiya was a person who used to eat a lot!

- Sayr Ahlam al-Nebla , vol. 3 , p. 124 .

Also Ibne Kathir said:

After the second time, the Holy Prophet (PBUH) said “May he never feels well-fed”! That was he never felt so!

I, too, believe that Muawiya never felt well-fed after the Holy Prophet’s curse and this curse was upon him even when he was Khalifa. That is why it is said that he used to eat seven times a day meals containing meat and he used to say “I swear to Allah, I do not feel complete! I am just tired”.

- Al-Badayah va al-Nahayah , vol. 6 , p. 189 .

Also Ibne Abi Shiba says:

Muawiya’s belly was so huge that it changed its form and he even could not speech while he was standing. That is why he was the first person in Islam that gave speech while he was sitting!

- Ibn Abi Shaibah , Al-Musnaf , vol. 7, p. 247 , Va Anzor Al-Ahad Va al-Masany , vol. 1, p. 380 ,  and Fatah Al-Bary , vol. 2 , p. 401 , and sayr Ahlam Al-Nebla’: 13 / 458 .

It is interesting that Soyuti in Al Khasais Al Kubra and Salihi Shami in Sabal Al Huda say that the tradition of Muawiya’s not feeling well-fed had been mentioned in Sahih Muslim and it shows that even Sahih Muslim has been distorted:

 وأخرج مسلم والبيهقي واللفظ عن ابن عباس أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال ( ادع لي معاوية فقلت أنه يأكل فقال في الثالثة لا أشبع الله بطنه فما شبع بطنه أبدا

الخصائص الكبرى ج 2 ص 293 ، اسم المؤلف: أبو الفضل جلال الدين عبد الرحمن أبي بكر السيوطي الوفاة: 911هـ ، دار النشر : دار الكتب العلمية - بيروت - 1405هـ - 1985م.

روى مسلم والبيهقي عن ابن عباس رضي الله عنهما قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم : ( ادع لي معاوية ) ، فقلت : انه يأكل ، فقال في الثالثة : ( لا أشبع الله بطنه ) فما شبع بطنه أبدا

- Sabal al-Hoda Va al-Ershad Fy  sirah khair al-Ebad , vol. 10 p 215, Al-Moalef Name: Muhammad bin Yusuf Al-Salehi al-Shami , ( died 942 A.H ) , publisher : Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Beirut – 1414 A.H. , Edition : 1 , research by : Adel Ahmad Abdul Mojod and Ali Muhammad Mouawaz .

C- The companions understood the real meaning of cursing by the Holy Prophet’s cursing

The companions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) understood the real meaning of cursing by seeing the Holy Prophet (PBUH) curse the others and not from some routine, unaware words which were uttered out of habit. Some traditions which were mentioned earlier about permission of cursing those who were cursed by the Holy Prophet (PBUH) show this fact:

Khifaf Ibne Aima (one of companions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)) said “The Holy Prophet (PBUH) went to Roku’ (a part of salat) and stood up again and said ‘The tribe of Assiya disobeyed God and His Messenger. May God curse Bani Lihyan, Ril, and Zakwan’. Then he did his Sajda (and continued his salat)”.

Khifaf says that because of this matter, cursing the pagans was permitted.

Sahih Moslim , vol. 1 , p. 470 , No. 679 .

It is quoted from Abdullah Ibne Masoud who said “God curses a woman who tattoos others and a woman who gets tattoo on her body. Also He curses a woman who shaves other women and a woman who lets her body shaved. God will also curse a woman who reforms her teeth for beauty (and puts a gap between the front ones) and God curses those who try to make a change in the creation”.

A woman from Bani Asad Tribe heard this. She was a woman who used to read Quran. She went to Abdullah Ibne Masoud and said “I heard that you have cursed such women”. He replied “Why shouldn’t I curse someone who the Holy Prophet (PBUH) has cursed? We are told to do so in the Holy Quran”. The woman asked “Where in the Holy Quran such a matter is mentioned (that we should curse someone who is cursed by the Holy Prophet (PBUH)), while I have read the Holy Quran completely?” He replied “You have seen and read that. God has said ‘Do whatever the Holy Prophet (PBUH) brought for you and abstain from whatever he banned you from’”.     

- Sahih Moslim , vol. 3 , p. 1678 , No. 2125 , book al-Lebas va al-Zinah , chapter : تحريم فعل الواصلة والمستوصلة والواشمة والمستوشمة والنامصة والمتنمصة والمتفلجات والمغيرات خلق الله - Sahih al-Bukhari , vol. 4 , p. 1853 , No. 4604 , book al-Tafsir , chapter: وما آتاكم الرسول فخذوه And vol. 5 , p. 2218 , No. 5595 , and p. 2219 , No. 5599 , book al-Lebas , chapter المتنمصات

Tabarani quoted this tradition in a more complete form and says explicitly:

Why shouldn’t I curse someone whom the Holy Prophet (PBUH) has cursed while this person is cursed in the Holy Quran, too!

- Al-Doha by Tabarani , vol. 1 , p. 587 , No. 2144 and p. 588 No. 2147 .

D- If these words did not intend to curse, why then were they due to anger for sake of God?

This matter does not go with the second answer of Nuwi. That is because in the second answer it is mentioned that this curse was not out of habit and a daily, routine word among Arabs, but was out of anger for the sake of God.

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) wanted to say that his cursing, insulting, and whipping others are among the matters that God gave him the option to choose between two acts. But his anger for God had forced him to curse, insult, or whip others and this anger is not something out of religion.

- Sharh al-Novy Ali Sahih Moslim vol. 16 p. 152.

So, according to what was said, we cannot claim that what was said was just out of habit and they were just a bunch of daily, routine words among the Arabs of that age.

Analysis of the third part of Nuwi’s word

This answer that “The Holy Prophet’s anger was because of performing divine rules” forces the Sunnis to accept that cursing was out of anger for God and it was a tradition of the Holy Prophet (PBUH). So, these traditions show something in contradiction with what Sunnis believe in and, as a result, Sunnis might not refer to them.

Concluding from answers: Whether cursing is a tradition of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) or the traditions are wrong!

Sunnis have two possible options here: whether they should accept what was concluded in the first answer and accept that cursing is a fixed and permanent tradition of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) or should claim that these traditions from Sahih Muslim are false!!!

And in both cases they should consider Muawiya as a person who deserves to be cursed and the Holy Prophet’s curse to him is not a virtue for him!!!

5- Will Angels Defend Someone Who Is Cursed?

In some traditions of Sunnis it is mentioned that a companion insulted Abubakr in presence of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and the Holy Prophet (PBUH) was silent at this moment and did nothing until the time that Abubakr got angry and insulted him back. At this moment, the Holy Prophet (PBUH) got up and left that place. He said “An angel was defending you while you were silent, but when you started insulting, Satan came in and I will not sit with Satan in one same place”.

Heithami writes about this tradition:

This tradition is narrated by Ahmad Ibne Hanbal and Tabarani in Al Mujam Al Awsat and Ahmad’s narrators are narrators of the Sahihs.

- Majmah al-Zavaed , vol. 8 , p. 190

What do you think about this tradition?

Answer:

According to this tradition, Sunnis should remain silent in front of cursing Khalifas

About this tradition, we should say that according to Sunnis, this tradition is accurate and valid and according to its content, banning others from insulting Khalifas and Abubakr is not true (because the Holy Prophet (PBUH) was silent toward this condition in which a Khalifa was being insulted) and we should leaving answering these insults to angels. In other words, if a person reacts against such insults, he has done something devilish and Satan is sitting with him.

On the other hand, it proves that the punishment of cursing Abubakr is different from what Sunnis believe about it (that is excommunication, being killed, or ta’zir).

There is contradiction in the text of this tradition

According to what was claimed in the text of the tradition, the Holy Prophet (PBUH) said “I will not sit in a place in where Satan is seated”!

The question here is that was Satan present in that place when the other man was insulting Abubakr or not? If the answer is no, then insulting Abubakr is not a devilish act! And if Satan was present, how did the Holy Prophet (PBUH) tolerate presence of Satan and still was seated in that place?

 

 


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