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Was "Abubakr" the consultant of prophet muhammad?
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Was "Abubakr" the consultant of prophet muhammad?

 Translated by: “muhammad hassan Heidary”

Is that true that  “Abubakr” was Prophet’s[PBUH] military consultant at wars?

SHORT RESPONSE:

According to Holy Quran and Shiite imam’s [AS] narrations, Prophet Muhammad [PBUH] would always consult his companions in both military and worldly affairs.

 Sometimes that he would consulted his companion in public circles  ,” Omar” and ”Abubakr” were there and would make remark . According to these remarks , which have not been approved by Prophet [PBUH] some are trying to prove that “Abubakr” and “Omar” were more qualified than others to be Prophet’s successor. While these consultations , if even they were approved by Prophet [PBUH] , they can’t prove any advantage  for the one who was consulted , because:

Firstly: many of average people even some of idolaters  like : “ Abdullah ibn Abi” who was one of idolaters’ leaders in Medina , were consulted by Prophet [PBUH] . So if consultation were an advantage  , these guys would have been reminded as honorable guys during the history , but it’s not like that

Secondly: Prophet Muhammad [PBUH] is the logos of the universe and was in communication with revelation , so his consultations was to test his companions not anything else.

Thirdly:  assuming that consultation is an advantage for the consultant , “Abubakr’s” consultation is useful for him , if it’s conducted , while history  witnesses that Prophet [PBUH] not only did not  practice “Abubakr’s” consultation but would reject to consult with him in many cases.

DETAILED RESPONSE:

 Preface:

According to some of Holy Quran’s verses , Prophet [PBUH] would consult his  companions about war and other matters relating to people:

فَبِمَا رَحْمَةٍ مِنَ اللَّهِ لِنْتَ لَهُمْ وَلَوْ كُنْتَ فَظًّا غَلِيظَ الْقَلْبِ لَانْفَضُّوا مِنْ حَوْلِكَ فَاعْفُ عَنْهُمْ وَاسْتَغْفِرْ لَهُمْ وَشَاوِرْهُمْ فِي الْأَمْرِ فَإِذَا عَزَمْتَ فَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَى اللَّهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُتَوَكِّلِين

it was by that mercy of allah that you (prophet muhammad) dealt so leniently with them. had you been harsh and hardhearted, they would have surely deserted you. therefore, pardon them and ask forgiveness for them. take counsel with them in the matter and when you are resolved, put your trust in allah. allah loves those who trust

ال عمران, 159 

“Imam Reza” also says about Prophet’s advisory manner with his companion

إِنَ‏ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ(ص) کَانَ‏ يسْتَشِيرُ أَصْحَابَهُ ثُمَّ يعْزِمُ عَلَى مَا يرِيد

Prophet [PBUH] would consult his companions , then he would make the final decision based on his sole discretion.

Sheikh Hurr al-Amel, Vsael  al-Shi 'a,  vol. 12, p. 44, Institute of Al al-Bayt peace be upon them, Qom, first edition, 1409 AH .  

Sometimes that he would consult his companion in public circles ,” Omar” and “Abubakr” were there and would make remark. Citing these remarks  , which have not been approved by Prophet [PBUH] some are trying to prove that” Abubakr” and “Omar” were more qualified than others to be Prophet’s successor. In other word  , defenders of this theory believe that the necessity of “Abubakr’s counseling in military matters is management power and participation in many wars and the necessity of participating in many wars at that time was courage , so Abubakr was a brave person . “Ibn teymiyya” says:” Abubakr” and Omar were the  only consultants of Prophet.

وبقي القسم الثاني وهو الرأي والمشورة فوجدناه خالصا لأبي بكر ثم لعمر ... كان أبو بكر معه لا يفارقه إيثارا من النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم له بذلك واستظهارا برأيه في الحرب وأنسا بمكانه ثم كان عمر ربما شورك في ذلك 

“Abubakr” and” Omar” were the only guys who counsel to Prophet PBUH] ….. “Abubakr” was always with Prophet [PBUH] . and it was because of Prophet’s sacrificing towards him and using of his opinions in war, sometimes Omar would do attend these matters.

Harrani , Ahmed bin Abdul -Halim ibn Taymiyyah Abu Abbas ( Mtofi 728 e) , Platform Sunnah , c 8 , pp. 87-88 , achieve d . Mohamed Rashad Salem , publisher : Cordoba Foundation , Edition: First , 1406 .

A close look in history shows that this issue is just a claim. Because not only Prophet [PBUH] would consult his companions and  even idolaters , but would reject “Abubakr’s views and do against that.

PROPHET’S [PBUH] TARGETS  FROM CONSULTATION  

Prophet muhmmad [PBUH] did not need to consult because he had divine knowledge and immunity from sin  , communication with revelation, so in this part we’ll look up the reasons of Prophet’s [PBUH] consultation.

 A. TESTING THE COMPANIONS

among  reasons which have been said about  Prophet’s consultation with his  companions is testing them ,  late “Tabarsy “ writes :

ثالثها : إن ذلك ليمتحنهم بالمشاورة ، ليتميز الناصح من الغاش

His consulting companions was to test  them.

Majma 'al-Bayan - Sheikh Al tabarsy - Vol. 2, Page 428

“Ayatollah Makarem  Shirazi ” writes in his book { nemoneh exegesis}  :  one of the advantages of consulting  is that one can realize the value of people’s personality and the rate of their enmity and friendship towards  him and this realization can make the way for  victory. perhaps  Prophet’s[PBUH] consulting despite his great power of thinking , was for this reason

Tafsire Nemone - Vol 3 , Page 145

B.TRAINING COMPANIONS :

Another  target of consulting, is describing its necessity  and  instructing it to public . “ Hassan  basry”  who was one of companions , writes:

عن الحسن في قوله وَ شاوِرْهُمْ فِي الْأَمْرِ قال قد علم الله أنه ما به إليهم من حاجة و لكن أراد أن يستن به من بعده‏

شاوِرْهُمْ فِي الْأَمْرِ:

It means that god knows that Prophet [PBUH] does not need consultation , but god wants it to become a manner and tradition among people after Prophet’s death.

Traditions Sa 'id ibn Mansur, vol 3, p 1098, died in: 227, dar Al asymy  - Riyadh - 1414, first edition:,  research: d. Saad bin Abdullah bin Abdulaziz Al Hamid .

Tafsir Ibn Abi Hatim , Vol 3 , p. 801, Abd al-Rahman ibn Muhammad ibn Idris al-Razi death: 327 , modern library - Sidon , achieve : Asaad Mohammed Tayeb .

Late ” tabarsy “one of Shiite scholars writes :

وثانيها : إن ذلك لتقتدي به أمته في المشاورة ، ولم يروها نقيصة ، كما مدحوا بأن أمرهم شورى بينهم ، عن سفيان بن عيينة

Sufyan ibn einah says: Prophet’s act was to educate  companions who would follow him , and would consult with them , as god has praised Muslims in Holy Quran like this : they consult with each other in important matters.

Al tabarsy, Ali al-Fadl ibn al-Hasan (d. 548 AH), Majma 'al-Bayan, vol. 2, p. 428, R: group of scholars, Publisher: Institute Al alamy Llmtboat Beirut , first edition, 1415H

Allameh Tabatabai” one of Shiite commentators and scholars writes in this regard

و قوله: «فَاعْفُ عَنْهُمْ وَ اسْتَغْفِرْ لَهُمْ وَ شاوِرْهُمْ فِي الْأَمْرِ» إنما سيق ليكون إمضاء لسيرته (ص) فإنه كذلك كان يفعل، و قد شاورهم في أمر القتال قبيل يوم أحد، و فيه إشعار بأنه إنما يفعل ما يؤمر و الله سبحانه عن فعله راض فَاعْفُ عَنْهُمْ وَ اسْتَغْفِرْ لَهُمْ وَ شاوِرْهُمْ فِي الْأَمْرِ

This sentence has been said to sign Prophet’s manner, because he’s already behaved  like this and he consulted  them before “ Ohod “ war and it shows that prophet [PBUH] would do god’s orders and god almighty was pleased of him

Tafsir al-Mizan, c 4, p. 57 Tabatabaei, Seyed Mohammad Hussein, an Islamic book spreads University teachers Hauza scientific Qum

C: COMPANIONS SATISFACTION

Some Sunny scholars say that one of the reasons of  Prophet’s consultation is to please them.

“Zamakhshary “one Sunny scholars writes:

في امر الحرب ونحوه مما لم ينزل عليك فيه وحي لتستظهر برأيهم ولما فيه من تطييب نفوسهم والرفع من أقدارهم

Consulting companions in war matters and matters that have not been sent down { there is not revelation about them} is to please them and to respect their military position

Al kashshaf an haqayiq Al ttanzil euyun al 'aqawil fi wujuh Al ttawil, j1, p 459 , 'Abu Al qasim mahmud ibn umar Al zamkhshri Al khawarizmi died: 538 , dar 'iihya ' Al tturath alearabi - Beirut ,searched by : eabd al rzzaq al Mahdi

“Ibn Kasir ” one of Sunny famous scholars says:

... وَ شاوِرْهُمْ فِي الْأَمْرِ و لذلك كان رسول اللّه صلّى اللّه عليه و سلّم يشاور أصحابه في الأمر إذا حدث تطييبا لقلوبهم ليكون أنشط لهم فيما يفعلونه، كما شاورهم يوم بدر في الذهاب إلى العير.

Consult them in different matters , for what god has said , Prophet [PBUH]  would consult his companions to please them to have more motivation , as he consulted them before fighting against idolaters in ” Uhod “war

Interpretation of Holy Quran , vol. 2, p. 131, Ibn Kathir, Ismail ibn Omar, Beirut, 1419 AH, researcher: Mohammad Hossein Shams al-Din

According to above issues it’s easy to understand that Prophet’s [PBUH] consultation  with his companions or their remark before him do not imply the excellence of the advisor, because his target was to educate, test and to please his companions and finally he wanted to respect their military position, so consulting  them would not give them any advantage to be qualified to govern the society.

PROPHET’S CONSULTATION  CASES

After  referring to the history we find out that Prophet  [PBUH] would consult many people even idolaters. “Abubakr”  is  one of  guys that Prophet [PBUH] would occasionally consult him and ask his opinions . followings are some Prophet’s consultation cases  :

1. Idolaters in Prophet’s [PBUH] advisory circles

As it was said , among Prophet’s [PBUH] advisory cases , consulting idolaters is seen that consulting “ Abd allah ibn abi raeis “ one of ” Mecca” idolaters is one them. “ Ibn Eshagh “ narrates {  with valid document } : Prophet [PBUH] asked his companions’ opinions about the way of war . “ Abdullah ibn abi monafegh” is one those that made remark about it:

أخبرنا عبد الله بن الحسن الحراني قال حدثنا النفيلي قال نا محمد بن سلمة عن محمد بن اسحاق: ... قال وكان رأى عبد الله ابن أبي بن سلول مع رأى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ، يرى رأيه في ذلك ، وألا يخرج إليهم ، وكان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يكره الخروج ، فقال رجال من المسلمين ، ممن أكرم الله بالشهادة يوم أحد وغيره ، ممن كان فاتته بدر : يا رسول الله ، اخرج بنا إلى أعدائنا ، لا يرون أنا جبنا عنه وضعفنا ؟ فقال عبد الله بن أبي [ بن سلول ] : يا رسول الله ، أقم بالمدينة لا تخرج إليهم ، فوالله ما خرجنا منها إلى عدو لنا قط إلا أصاب منا ، ولا دخلها علينا إلا أصبنا منه فدعهم يا رسول الله ، فإن أقاموا أقاموا بشر محبس ، وإن دخلوا قاتلهم الرجال في وجههم ، ورماهم النساء والصبيان بالحجارة من فوقهم ، وإن رجعوا رجعوا خائبين كما جاءوا ...

His opinion was to remain in the city , but some Muslims whom god cherished them during “ Ohod “ war and otherwise by martyrdom , said to Prophet [PBUH] that we have to leave the city, till enemy does not think that we’re afraid and weak . But “Abdullah ibn selol “ said : Oh, prophet [PBUH] remain in the city , because we ‘ve experienced  that whenever we left the city to fight , enemy could fail us , and because we remained in the city we could beat them.  Let “Quraish” to remain otherwise we’ll be in big trouble . and if  they attack to the city , men will fight them and  women and children will throw stone at them form top of roof and finally they will retreat…

Muhammad ibn Ishaq ibn Yasar, d. 151, Sirat Ibn Ishaq, vol. 1, p. 303, R: Muhammad Hamidullah, press: Maehd Al derasat Val abhas Leltaryf, Publisher: Maehd Al derast Valabhas Leltaryf

From above issue we find out that guys like : “ Abdullah ibn abi “ who was idolater would consult Prophet [ PBUH ].

 Searching about the document of the narration

To make sure that narration is valid we’ll look up each narrator of the narration:

 Muhammad ibn es,hagh:

“ Ibn hajar asqalany “ writes about his reliability

محمد بن إسحاق بن يسار أبو بكر المطلبي مولاهم المدني نزيل العراق إمام المغازي صدوق

He was so reliable and war-knower

Alsqlany El-Shafei, Ahmed ibn Ali ibn hajar (d. 852 AH), Taghrib  Al tahzyb, vol. 1, p. 467, R: Mohammad aVameh, Publisher: Dar al-Rashid - Soria,fist edition , 1406-1986

“ Dahabi” one of sunny” rejal” scholars writes about him in his book

محمد بن إسحاق بن يسار أبو بكر المخرمي مولاهم المدني أحد الأئمة الأعلام

He was one of great pioneers .

 Al-zahabi Shafei, Shams al-Din abu abdullah Mohammad bin Ahmad bin Othman (d 748 AH), Almizan Al eatedal , vol. 6, p. 56, R: Sheikh Ali Mohamed Moawaa and sheikh Adel Ahmed Bbd al mojood, Publisher: Dar Al kotob – Beirut ,first edition , 1995

Muhammad ibn salameh Al harany

Another narrator of this narration is “ Muhammad ibn salameh” , “ Zahabi” writes about his reliability :

محمد بن سلمة الحراني مولى باهلة ... قال بن سعد ثقة عالم له فضل ورواية وفتوى

He’s reliable , scholar , knowledgeable, narrator and issues decree.

 Zahabi Shafei, Shams al-Din abu abdellah Mohammad ibn Ahmad ibn Othman (d 748 AH), Al kashef fe Al maerefat , vol. 2, p 175, R: Mohammad aVameh, Publisher: Dar Al qeblah Lelsaqafeh Al eslamyh, Institute of Science – Jiddahfirst editition , the 1413 – 1992  

Abdullah ibn Muhammad ibn Ali ibn nafil:

Another narrator is “Abdullah ibn Muhammad ibn Ali ibn nafil” , “I bn hajar “ writes about his reliability :  

عبد الله بن محمد بن علي ... النفيلي الحراني ثقة حافظ من كبار العاشرة  

He’s reliable , Holy Quran’s retentive , and is among decuple elders  

Alsqlany El-Shafei, Ahmed ibn Ali ibn hajar, A. (d. 852 AH), taghrib  Al tahzyb, vol. 1, p. 321, R: Mohammad avameh, Publisher: Dar al-Rashid - Syria, first edition, 1406-  1987

“ Zahabi” writes about him:

عبد الله بن محمد بن علي بن نفيل الحافظ أبو جعفر النفيلي الحراني ... قال أبو داود ما رأيت أحفظ منه وكان أحمد يعظمه وقال بن واره هو من أركان الدين

I had not seen any body to know “Holy Quran” by his heart as good as him. “ Ahmad” would always praise him. And “ ben vareh” has said that he’s among principles of the religion .

 Zahabi Shafei , Shams Al-Din Abu Abdullah  Mohammad ibn Ahmad ibn Othman (d 748 AH), Alkashef fi Al maerefah , vol. 1, p. 595, R: Mohammad avameh, Publisher: Dar Al qebleh lel saqafeh Al aslamyh , Institute of Science – Jiddah first edition, 1413

Abdu allah ibn al hasan al harani  

Another narrator of this narration is”  Abdu allah ibn al hasan al harani” , “ ibn hajr” says that he’s reliable

وأبو شعيب عبد الله بن الحسن الحراني وآخرون قال أبو حاتم ثقة

“Abu hatam “ says that he’s reliable

Altahzyb Al tahzyb, vol 10, p 342

He mentions in his  book { lesan Al mizan } about his  honesty and liability:

عبد الله بن الحسن أبو شعيب الحراني معمر صدوق روى عن البابلتي وعفان قال الدارقطني ثقة مأمون

“ Abdullah ibn al hasan harany” had long life . he was honest and “ Dar al ghatny “ has said that he’s reliable.

Al-asqalani Shafi 'i , Ahmad bin Ali bin stone Abolfazl ( Mtovay 852 e) , San balance , c 3:00 0.271 , achieving : regular identifier circle - India , publisher : Aloalma Foundation Publications - Beirut , Edition: Third , 1406 - 1986.

2. Prophet’s [PBUH] consultation with unknown people.

During “ Ohod” war , those who said that we should leave the city and their opinion was accepted, were Prophet’s [PBUH] ordinary companions that their names have not been mentioned .

 3. Prophet’s [PBUH] consultation with his companions and their remark.

One of  those that Prophet [PBUH] would always practice his consultations  was Commander of faithful [AS] , as Prophet [PBUH] consulted  him about “ verse of whispering ” that was about setting the amount of charity , and Prophet [PBUH]  practiced his consultation

عن علي بن أبي طالب قال : لما نزلت ( إذا ناجيتم الرسول فقدموا بين يدي نجواكم صدقة ) قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله : ما تقول ؟ ( أيكفي ) دينار ؟ قلت : لا يطيقونه . قال : فكم ؟ قال : إنك لزهيد . فنزلت ( أأشفقتم أن تقدموا بين يدي نجواكم صدقات ) الآية ، قال علي : فبي خفف عن هذه الأمة ...

Commander of faithful [AS] says: when “ the verse of  whispering “ was sent down , Prophet [PBUH] told me : what’s  your  idea about the amount of charity , is one dinar enough? I said they can’t afford it . Prophet said : so how much? I said : a grain of wheat. How much you turn your back on this world [ you really are not materialistic] Prophet said. then this verse was sent down “

“ اشفقتم ان تقدموا و….”

Commander of faithful said : I’m the one that god is lenient on people because of him

Haskany , 'Ubayd Allah ibn Abdullah, Shawahid al-Tanzil Leqavad Al tafzyl, researcher and editor: Mahmoud, , vol. 2, p. 315, al tabieat le wizarat al thaqafat wa al 'iirshad al 'islami, majmae 'al ihya ' al thaqafat al 'islamiat Tehran, first edition, 1411 AD

During “ Badr” war “ Monzar “ told Prophet [ PBUH] , we should go to the city to fight . “ Ibn saed “ explains

قال الحباب بن المنذر يا رسول الله إن هذا المكان الذي أنت به ليس بمنزل انطلق بنا إلى أدنى ماء إلى القوم فإني عالم بها وبقلبها بها قليب قد عرفت عذوبة مائه لا ينزح ثم نبني عليه حوضا فنشرب ونقاتل ونعور ما سواه من القلب فنزل جبريل على رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فقال الرأي ما أشار به الحباب فنهض رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ففعل ذلك

“ Monzar” said : Oh Prophet [PBUH] : where we are now can’t reach us to the nearest “water well “ of  the enemy . I know this region and it’s “wells” , they are wells here that I know they have  fresh water and have not been excavated  , we can make well and use of its water and fight the enemy and cover other wells. “ Gabriel ” came down and said : he is right . Prophet [ PBUH ] practiced what he said.

Tabaqat al-Kubra, Vol. 2, p. 15, Mohammed bin Saad died in : 230 AH, , Beirut.

As you saw Prophet [ PBUH ] did what “ Hobab” said based on divine’s revelation

Since companions would counsel to the Prophet [PBUH] properly , he would practice it , during “ Khandagh” war Prophet [PBUH] practiced  “ Salman’s consultation.

فأما تسميتها الخندق فلأجل الخندق الذي حفر حول المدينة بأمر النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم وكان الذي أشار بذلك سلمان فيما ذكره أصحاب المغازي منهم أبو معشر قال قال سلمان للنبي صلى الله عليه وسلم إنا كنا بفارس إذا حوصرنا خندقنا علينا فأمر النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم بحفر الخندق حول المدينة وعمل فيه بنفسه ترغيبا للمسلمين فسارعوا إلى عمله حتى فرغوا منه 

This  war is called “ khandagh” because of the  holes  that  were dug up around  the city of “ Medina ordered by Prophet [ PBUH] after consulting “ Salman”. The historians of Prophet’s [ PBUH] wars like “ Abu masher”  have said it.

Salman” said to Prophet [PBUH] when we were in land of “ Persia ” , and  we would surrounded , we’d dig up holes around the city. Prophet [PBUH] ordered ditches to be dug up around “ Medina” , and to encourage Muslims , Prophet [PBUH] helped them to dig up hole around the city

Al asqlany El-Shafei, Ahmed ibn Ali ibn zahab. (d. 852 AH), Fath Al-Bari description of sahih Bukhari, vol 7, p 301, R: Moheb al-Din al-Khatib, Publisher: Dar Almrfh – Beirut

4.Turning away from some of companion’s opinion

In some cases that Prophet [ PBUH] would consult his companion , “Abubar” would make remark , but history shows that Prophet [PBUH] would refuse his opinions and practice against his ideas . we briefly mention to two examples

“Badr war“

 One of cases that Prophet [ PBUH]  explicitly refused to consult “ Abubakr” was  during “ Badr”  war , “ Muslem ibn hajaj” quotes

عَنْ أَنَس، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم شَاوَرَ حِينَ بَلَغَهُ إِقْبَالُ أَبِي سُفْيَانَ قَالَ فَتَكَلَّمَ أَبُو بَكْر فَأَعْرَضَ عَنْهُ ثُمَّ تَكَلَّمَ عُمَرُ فَأَعْرَضَ عَنْهُ فَقَامَ سَعْدُ بْنُ عُبَادَةَ فَقَالَ إِيَّانَا تُرِيدُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ وَالَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ لَوْ أَمَرْتَنَا أَنْ نُخِيضَهَا الْبَحْرَ لأَخَضْنَاهَا وَلَوْ أَمَرْتَنَا أَنْ نَضْرِبَ أَكْبَادَهَا إِلَى بَرْكِ الْغِمَادِ لَفَعَلْنَا - قَالَ - فَنَدَبَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم النَّاسَ فَانْطَلَقُوا حَتَّى نَزَلُوا بَدْرًا

Anas” says: we were told that “ Abu sufyan” has entered “ Meadina” , Prophet [PBUH] consulted his companions , “Abubakr “ said his opinion , but Prophet [PBUH] rejected it, then “ Omar” talked, Prophet [PBUH] rejected him too, “ Saed ibn ebadeh” said : Do you want our opinion? Swear by  god , if you order to drown them we will do so. And if you tell us to fondle them by our scabbard we will do it. After listening to what they said ,  Prophet [PBUH]called people to fight.

Al nysabvry, Muslem ibn al-Hajjaj Abu Hussein Al qashyry (d. 261 AH), Sahih ibn  Muslim, vol. 5, p. 170, Book of Jihad Va alsyr (Maghazi), Badr war section , research: Muhammad Fuad Abdul baghi, Publisher: Dar Al ehya Altras Arabi – Beirut

We can use of this narration that Prophet [ PBUH] rejected to accept “ Omar “ and “ Abubakr’s opinions.

Prophet’s [ PBUH ] refusal  in “ Hodaybyeh” peace

Some of Sunny scholars believe { citing a narration from “ Shih bokhari”} that Prophet [PBUH] consulted “ Abubakr” and practiced  his opinion . in continue we’ll search about the narration after citing it.

حدثنا عبد اللَّهِ بن مُحَمَّدٍ حدثنا سُفْيَانُ قال سمعت الزُّهْرِيَّ حين حَدَّثَ هذا الحديث حَفِظْتُ بَعْضَهُ وَثَبَّتَنِي مَعْمَرٌ عن عُرْوَةَ بن الزُّبَيْرِ عن الْمِسْوَرِ بن مَخْرَمَةَ وَمَرْوَانَ بن الْحَكَمِ يَزِيدُ أَحَدُهُمَا على صَاحِبِهِ قالا خَرَجَ النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم عَامَ الْحُدَيْبِيَةِ في بِضْعَ عَشْرَةَ مِائَةً من أَصْحَابِهِ فلما أتى ذَا الْحُلَيْفَةِ قَلَّدَ الْهَدْيَ وَأَشْعَرَهُ وَأَحْرَمَ منها بِعُمْرَةٍ وَبَعَثَ عَيْنًا له من خُزَاعَةَ وَسَارَ النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم حتى كان بِغَدِيرِ الْأَشْطَاطِ أَتَاهُ عَيْنُهُ قال إِنَّ قُرَيْشًا جَمَعُوا لك جُمُوعًا وقد جَمَعُوا لك الْأَحَابِيشَ وَهُمْ مُقَاتِلُوكَ وَصَادُّوكَ عن الْبَيْتِ وَمَانِعُوكَ فقال أَشِيرُوا أَيُّهَا الناس عَلَيَّ أَتَرَوْنَ أَنْ أَمِيلَ إلى عِيَالِهِمْ وَذَرَارِيِّ هَؤُلَاءِ الَّذِينَ يُرِيدُونَ أَنْ يَصُدُّونَا عن الْبَيْتِ فَإِنْ يَأْتُونَا كان الله عز وجل قد قَطَعَ عَيْنًا من الْمُشْرِكِينَ وَإِلَّا تَرَكْنَاهُمْ مَحْرُوبِينَ قال أبو بَكْرٍ يا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ خَرَجْتَ عَامِدًا لِهَذَا الْبَيْتِ لَا تُرِيدُ قَتْلَ أَحَدٍ ولا حَرْبَ أَحَدٍ فَتَوَجَّهْ له فَمَنْ صَدَّنَا عنه

Masur ibn makhrameh” says : in “ Hudaibyye “ year  Prophet [PBUH] moved along with thousands of his companions, when they arrived to “ Zul,halifa” he put cradle on camels , marked their humps and wore pilgrim’s garb {  ihram : two-piece robe worn by men in Miqat as part of the ceremony of pilgrimage to the Holy Mecca } for “ umrah” hajj and sent a spy from” Khazae” tribe and moved till he go to “ Qadir Alashtat” , his spy came and said: “Quraish” has collected large population , containing  “ Habashys” . they’ll definitely fight against you and won’t let you to pilgrimage “ Kaaba” , Prophet [PBUH] said : Oh, people what’s your idea? Would you like to kill women and children of those who hinder us to pilgrimage “ Kaaba” ? “Abubakr “said: Oh, Prophet [PBUH] we are here to pilgrimage “ Kaaba” no to kill any body . so move towards “ Kaaba” if someone  hinders us we’ll fight. Prophet [ PBUH] said : “ in the name of god, movie

Aljfy Bukhari, Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Ismail (d. 256 AH), sahih Bukhari, vol. 4, p. 1531, searched by: Mustafa Deb Al bgha , Publisher: Dar Ibn Kathir, Alymamh - Beirut, house: Alsalsh, 1407

Teyrany” believes that Prophet [ PBUH] practiced ” Abubakr’s consultation.

ذكراختصاصه بالشورى بين يدي النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم وقبوله صلى الله عليه وسلم مشورته

One of  “ Abubakr ‘s particular features  was to counsel to Prophet  [PBUH] and he ‘d accept  his opinion

Abu Ja 'far Ahmad ibn Abdullah ibn Muhammad Al-Tabari died : 694, Ar-Riyad Al nazrah fimanagheb Alshrh, vol. 2, p. 66 Publishing House: Dar al-Islam - BEIRUT - 1996, first edition ,research : Eisa Abdullah Mohammed al-Humairi  

To clarify above issue , we’ll search about his Teyranny’s claime “ claime could be searched from three sides: 

1: Prophet Muhammad [PBUH] would only consult “ Abubakr” 

2: Prophet [pbuh] would only accept “ Abubakr’s opinion 

3: in this narration Prophet [PBUH] accepted his opinion

After searching about this narration we find out that one of “ Teyrany’s claims is incorrect. But about first claim , as it was said in above issues ,  Prophet [PBUH] has consulted his companions like : “ Salman “ and “ Hobab ibn monzar” and Commander of faithful [AS] , so first claim is incorrect

On  the other hand  as it was said , in some cases Prophet [PBUH] accepted  companions consultation , like accepting Commander of faithful’s opinion about amount of  charity  and accepting ”Salmans’ idea in “ Khandagh “ war and digging whole , so his second claim is wrong either  

His third claim is wrong too, because in his cited narration, “ Abubakr’s opinion was this : we should move and if they hinder us we’ll fight against them , but history proves its opposite , because when polytheists  standed against Prophet [PBUH]  and his companions , not only he did not fight but he signed “Hodaybiya” peace treaty , as “ Bokhari” writes in his book:

حدثني عبد اللَّهِ بن مُحَمَّدٍ حدثنا عبد الرَّزَّاقِ أخبرنا مَعْمَرٌ قال أخبرني الزُّهْرِيُّ قال أخبرني عُرْوَةُ بن الزُّبَيْرِ عن الْمِسْوَرِ بن مَخْرَمَةَ وَمَرْوَانَ يُصَدِّقُ كُلُّ وَاحِدٍ مِنْهُمَا حَدِيثَ صَاحِبِهِ قالا خَرَجَ رسول اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم زَمَنَ الْحُدَيْبِيَةِ... فَدَعَا النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم الْكَاتِبَ فقال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرحمن الرَّحِيمِ قال سُهَيْلٌ أَمَّا الرَّحْمَنُ فَوَاللَّهِ ما أَدْرِي ما هو وَلَكِنْ اكْتُبْ بِاسْمِكَ اللهم كما كُنْتَ تَكْتُبُ فقال الْمُسْلِمُونَ والله لَا نَكْتُبُهَا إلا بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرحمن الرَّحِيمِ فقال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم اكْتُبْ بِاسْمِكَ اللهم ثُمَّ قال هذا ما قَاضَى عليه مُحَمَّدٌ رسول اللَّهِ فقال سُهَيْلٌ والله لو كنا نَعْلَمُ أَنَّكَ رسول اللَّهِ ما صَدَدْنَاكَ عن الْبَيْتِ ولا قَاتَلْنَاكَ وَلَكِنْ اكْتُبْ محمد بن عبد اللَّهِ فقال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم والله إني لَرَسُولُ اللَّهِ وَإِنْ كَذَّبْتُمُونِي اكْتُبْ محمد بن عبد اللَّهِ

“Masur ibn al makhrameh “ and “ Marvan” while they  would affirm each other , say that in the time of “ Hudaybya” peace , Prophet [PBUH] left “ Medina” . he called Ali [AS] and said : write ,” in the name of god “ , “Soheil” said:  swear by god I do not what gracious is . he said write “ Oh god , thy name “ as you would write before . Muslims said : swear by god we do not write  anything except “ in the name of god “ . Prophet [PBUH] said:  write  “ Oh god , thy name , then he said : “ this is the treaty that Muhammad , the messenger of god has made “ “ Suheil” said : if we knew that you’re Prophet , we would not fight you. So write “ Muhammad ibn abdullah “ Prophet said : I’m the Prophet [PBUH] even if you reject me .

Muhammad ibn Ismail Abu Abdullah Bukhari died: 256, Jamea  Alshyh  Almokhtasar, vol. 2, pp. 974-977, Publishing House: Dar Ibn Kathir, Al ymameh - BEIRUT - from 1407 to 1987, third edition, research: d. Mustafa Deeb Albgha

Above narration explains clearly that Prophet  [PBUH] did not listen to “Abubakr’s consultation and did not fight them so what “ Teyrani “ said is wrong

It’s gotten from two above narrations that not only “ Abubakr ” was not Prophet’s [PBUH] particular consultant but Prophet [PBUH]  would reject his opinions . now we should look up those that Prophet [PBUH] had to avoid consulting them , based on god’s orders  in Holy Quran

God orders Prophet [PBUH]  to refuse consulting some groups:

1.Turning away from IGNORANTS:

God says in chapter “Araf”:

وَ أَعْرِضْ عَنِ الْجاهِلين‏.

الأعراف/199

2.Turning from polytheists

God restates to this issue in chapters “ an,am “ and “ hijr

اتَّبِعْ ما أُوحِيَ إِلَيْكَ مِنْ رَبِّكَ لا إِلهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ وَ أَعْرِضْ عَنِ‏ الْمُشْرِكينَ‏

. الأنعام/106 . و الحجر/94 .

Therefore , follow what has been revealed to you from your lord there is no god except him, and avoid the idolaters.

3.Turning  from those who turn away from  god’s remembrance

God says in chapter “ najm”

فَأَعْرِضْ عَنْ مَنْ تَوَلَّى عَنْ ذِكْرِنا وَ لَمْ يُرِدْ إِلاَّ الْحَياةَ الدُّنْيا. ذَالِكَ مَبْلَغُهُم مِّنَ الْعِلْمِ  إِنَّ رَبَّكَ هُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِمَن ضَلَّ عَن سَبِيلِهِ وَ هُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِمَنِ اهْتَدَى‏.

النجم/ 29 .

so turn from those who turn away from our remembrance and only desire this present life.     that is all they have of knowledge. your lord knows best who has  strayed from his path, and those who are guided

4.Turning from hypocrites

وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمْ تَعَالَوْا إِلَى مَا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ وَإِلَى الرَّسُولِ رَأَيْتَ الْمُنَافِقِينَ يَصُدُّونَ عَنْكَ صُدُودًا (*) فَكَيْفَ إِذَا أَصَابَتْهُمْ مُصِيبَةٌ بِمَا قَدَّمَتْ أَيْدِيهِمْ ثُمَّ جَاءُوكَ يَحْلِفُونَ بِاللَّهِ إِنْ أَرَدْنَا إِلَّا إِحْسَانًا وَتَوْفِيقًا (*) أُولَئِكَ الَّذِينَ يَعْلَمُ اللَّهُ مَا فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ فَأَعْرِضْ عَنْهُمْ وَعِظْهُمْ وَقُلْ لَهُمْ فِي أَنْفُسِهِمْ قَوْلًا بَلِيغًا

النساء/ 61 – 64.

when it is said to them: 'come to what allah has sent down and to the messenger, ' you see the hypocrites completely barring the way to you. (61)   how would it be if some affliction hit them for what their hands have forwarded? then, they would come to you swearing by allah, 'we sought only kindness and conciliation! ' (62) those, allah knows what is in their hearts, so turn away from them, and exhort them, and say to them penetrating words about themselves. (63) we did not send a messenger except that he should be obeyed, by the permission of allah. if, when they wronged themselves, they had come to you and asked allah for forgiveness, and the messenger had asked for forgiveness for them, they would have found allah the turner, the most merciful. (64)

5.Turning away from unbelievers

قُلْ يَوْمَ الْفَتْحِ لَا يَنْفَعُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا إِيمَانُهُمْ وَلَا هُمْ يُنْظَرُونَ (*) فَأَعْرِضْ عَنْهُمْ وَانْتَظِرْ إِنَّهُمْ مُنْتَظِرُونَ

السجدة/ 29- 30.

say: 'on the day of opening the faith of the unbelievers will not benefit them, nor shall they be respited. ' (29)  therefore turn away from them, and wait, they are waiting.

From above issues we can conclude that Prophet [PBUH] turned away from “ Abubakr” because he was not tactful and did not have tact in military matters  . so when “ Abubakr “ is not capable in military affairs , naturally he can’t run the country and can’t be  Prophet’s [ PBUH] successor . in addition even if he’s capable in military affairs ,he was not qualified to be Prophet’s [PBUH] successor because, firstly; caliphate is divine and secondly; military management alone _even if Prophet [PBUH] would consult you_ can’t cause to be successor, because capability of military management is part of the aspects of society ruler

Being consulted does not mean the courage of that person

Assuming that “Abubakr” would counsel to Prophet [PBUH] in military affairs , but it can’t prove “ Abuabakr’ courage , because it’s been quoted in the history  for many times that he would fail in wars and run away.

1.“ Abakr’s fleeing in wars

There are many narrations about his failures and escaping  in wars.  You can refer to following address to see detailed contents

Checking the verse of “ Muhammad the messenger of god ….” And caliphates’ clearing from assaulting “ Hazrat Fatima’s house”  

2.Sunny scholars’ confession to “ Abubakr’s lack of courage:

After referring to sunny books we find out that sunny scholars admit that “ Abubakr was not courage warrior  

Professor  “ Abd al karim mesry” one of professors of  interpretation faculty in “ Riyadh “ city in 1973 to 19975 says about “ Abubakr’s  courage

فأبوبكر لم يعرف عنه أنه كان ذا مكانة معروفة في مواقع القتال.

It’s not written in the history the he would have particular and known position in wars And he writes:

Al-khatib , Abdul Karim , Omar bin al-Khattab , p. 186, i Egypt , 1961

فحسان ابن ثابت (رضي الله عنه) لم يكن من المحاربين المعدودين في ميادين الحرب والنضال، ومثله غير واحد من صحابة الرسول كأبي بكر، وعثمان

“ Hesan ibn sabet” and many of other companions like: “ Abubakr” , “Osman” and… were not the warrior of battle field

Khatib Abdul Karim, Ali ibn Abi Talib rest of prophecy and end of caliphate , pp. 130 - 133, Publisher: Matbah al-Sunnah Almhmdyh,  Egypt , first edition, 1386 H.

That’s why , when “ Ebn teymiya “ sees that “ Omar “ and “ Abubakr “ could not win even one war and would even escape in wars , he says:

وأما القتال فيحتاج إلى التدبير والرأي ويحتاج إلى شجاعة القلب وإلى القتال باليد وهو إلى الرأي والشجاعة في القلب في الرأس المطاع أحوج منه إلى قوة البدن وأبو بكر وعمر رضي الله عنهما مقدمان في أنواع الجهاد غير قتال البدن.

War needs planning , deliberate view, heart courage, fighting with sword . and war needs valor leader that his order are abided more than physical power and “ Abubakr “ did not know military affairs and were not able to fight with sword and were just capable of other types of wars.

Al-harrani , Ahmed bin Abdul -Halim ibn Taymiyyah Abu Abbas ( Mtofi 728 e) , Platform Sunnah , c 8 , pp. 86-87 , achieve d . Mohamed Rashad Salem , publisher : Cordoba Foundation , Edition: First , 1406 .

And he says in another book  after falsifying the meaning of  “ courage”

 إذا كانت الشجاعة المطلوبة من الأئمة شجاعة القلب، فلا ريب أن أبا بكر كان أشجع من عمر، وعمر أشجع من عثمان وعلي وطلحة والزبير، وكان يوم بدر مع النبي في العريش

if the courage that leaders need is heart courage , so there is no doubt that “ Abubakr” was more courageous than “ Omar”  and he was braver than “ Osman , Ali [AS], “Talhe” and “ Zobayr” . he’d sitten in tent on the of “ Badr “ war

Al harani, Ahmad Abu Al-Abbas bin Abdul Halim ibn Tymyh (d. 728 AH), Minhaj al-Sunnah Alnabavyh, vol. 8, p. 79, research. Mohammed Rashad Salem, Publisher: Institute Qartebh, first edition, 140 H.

“ Ebn teymya”  preceded  “ Abubakr “ and “ Omar” to “ Commander of faithful” while “ Abubakr” and other companions did not accept it.

“ Abubakr’s opinion”

“ Ebn hazm “ writes

قد صح أن أبا بكر الصديق رضي الله عنه  خطب الناس حين ولي بعد موت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فقال أيها الناس إني وليتكم ولست بخيركم فقد صح عنه رضي الله عنه أنه أعلن بحضرة جميع الصحابة رضي الله عنهم أنه ليس بخيرهم ولم ينكر هذا القول منهم أحد فدل على متابعتهم له ولا خلاف أنه ليس في أحد من الحاضرين لخطبته إنسان يقول فيه أحد من الناس أنه خير من أبي بكر إلا علي وابن مسعود وعمر ... ومما تبين أن أبا بكر رضي الله عنه لم يقل وليتكم ولست بخيركم إلا محقا صادقا لا تواضعا يقول فيه الباطل. 

Ibn Hazm Al andolosy, Ali ibn Ahmed ibn Saeed Abu Muhammad (d. 456 AH), Al fasl   fi melal va al ahvae , vol. 4, pp. 105-106, Publisher: maktab  Al khanjy , cairo

Imam Hasan” [AS]

أخبرنا الحسن بن سفيان حدثنا أبو بكر بن أبي شيبة حدثنا عبد الله بن نمير عن إسماعيل بن أبي خالد عن أبي إسحاق عن هبيرة بن يريم قال سمعت الحسن بن علي قام فخطب الناس فقال يا أيها الناس لقد فارقكم أمس رجل ما سبقه ولا يدركه الآخرون

Tamimi Al Basti , Mohammed bin Ahmed bin Hibbaan Abouhatm ( Mtovay 354 e) , true son Hibbaan order Bulban son , C 15 , p. 383 , achieving : Shoaib al-Arna 'oot , publisher : Message Foundation - Beirut , Edition: Second , 1414 , 1993 .

IS COMMANDER OF FAITHFUL THE PIONEERD FIRS AND LAST ?

“ Imam hasan “ and “ Ammar ibn yasir”

وهو عند عمار والحسن أفضل من أبي بكر وعمر

Ibn Hazm Alandlsyal zahery , Ali ibn Ahmed ibn Saeed Abu Muhammad (d. 456 AH), Alfasl fi melal va al ahvae  vol. 4, p. 106, Publishermaktab  Al khanjy, cairo  

“ Zubayr, “Ammar” and “ Meghdad”

وفي قصة الشورى أن جماعة من الصحابة كانوا يتشيعون لعلي ويرون استحقاقه على غيره ولما عدل به إلى سواه تأففوا من ذلك وأسفوا له مثل الزبير ومعه عمار بن ياسر والمقداد بن الأسود وغيرهم

Alhazrami, Abd al-Rahman ibn Muhammad ibn Khaldun (d. 808 AH), Ibn Khaldun History, vol. 3, p. 215, Publishing House: Dar Al-Qalam – Beirutfifth edition  Jamea el-Kebir in 1984

“ Abd allah ibn masud”

حدثنا عبد الله قال حدثني جدي قثنا أبو قطن قثنا شعبة عن أبي إسحاق عن عبد الله بن يزيد عن علقمة عن عبد الله وهو بن مسعود قال كنا نتحدث ان أفضل أهل المدينة علي بن أبي طالب.

Al- shibany , abu abd Allah Ahmad ibn Hanbal (d. 241 AH), the virtues of companins , vol. 2, p. 646research. Vasi allah Mohammad Abbas, Publisher: Institute Alrsalh - Beirut, first edition the 1403 – 1983

Most of  “ Mutazilite” scholars

قلت : أما قول ، أبي بكر : وليتكم ولست بخيركم فقد صدق عند كثير من أصحابنا ، لأن خيرهم علي بن أبي طالب رضي الله عنه.

Ibn abi alhdyd al-Madain Almotazely, Abu Hamid Iz al-Din ibn gift heba Allah ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad (d. 655 AH), sharh Nahj al-Balagha, vol 17, p 90, R: Mohammed Abdel Karim al-Nimr, publisher: house of scientific book - Beirut / Lebanon first edition , the 1418 – 1998

According to above issues “ Ibn teymya’ judgment is quite against reality and is based on prejudice.

RESULT:

From above issues we conclude that based on Holy Quran’s order, Prophet [PBUH] would consult his companions  , but it’s not true that “Abubakr” would counsel to Prophet[ PBUH] in military matters . as history witnesses, “ Abubakr” had no position in wars, while military consultant must be warrior and basically he was not courage , assuming that he would counsel to Prophet [PBUH] , it can’t prove any advantage , because, firstly: as it was said Prophet’s [ PBUH] target of consulting his companions was to test and educate or to please them , and when target is such things it doesn’t bring any advantage for the consultant . secondly: if consulting brings advantage for the consultant , naturally people like: “ Ibn teymya” and his comrades must consider advantage for average and hypocrite guys like: “ Abdul,lah ibn ubai” who would consult Prophet [PBUH]. 

on the other side it doesn’t prove “ Abubakr’s power of management”  because, if consultation is suppose to prove something , sunny scholars should commit that these issues must be proven to  guys like “ Abdu allah ibn abi” while they’re not committed to such thing

secondly: in many cases Prophet [PBUH] would not know him as manager and has appointed others to manage, despite his presence [like: Osameh ibn zeyd and….]  

Good luck 

The board of addressing religious doubts

The research institute of His Holiness Imam of the age (may GOD precipitates his blessing reappearance)

 



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